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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from _________  to  __________ 
                                                
Commission file number 0-1088 

 KELLY SERVICES, INC. 
 (Exact Name of Registrant as specified in its Charter) 
 
Delaware   38-1510762 
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)  (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

999 West Big Beaver Road, Troy, Michigan 48084
(Address of principal executive offices)  (Zip Code)

(248) 362-4444
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: 

Title of each
class
Trading
Symbols
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Class A CommonKELYANASDAQ Global Market 
Class B CommonKELYBNASDAQ Global Market 

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 

Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller
reporting company)
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
                                                           
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of
the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.
7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $524.3 million.
 
Registrant had 35,929,080 shares of Class A and 3,372,521 of Class B common stock, par value $1.00, outstanding as of February 08, 2021.

Documents Incorporated by Reference
 
The proxy statement of the registrant with respect to its 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated by reference in Part III.
2


PART I

Unless the context otherwise requires, throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K the words “Kelly,” “Kelly Services,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Kelly Services, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS.

History and Development of Business

Founded by William Russell Kelly in 1946, Kelly Services® pioneered an industry that connects people to work in ways that enrich their lives. Our inception helped usher in and embolden a workforce of women, opening doors and creating completely new opportunities. As work evolved, Kelly equipped people with skills to master the technologies of the day: launching the first-of-its-kind online learning center for scientists; creating testing and training packages for breakthrough office programs; and launching skill builders that aligned with new light industrial protocols. With each advance, Kelly empowered people to meet the needs of the marketplace, and enabled companies to access skilled talent to move their businesses forward.

As work has evolved so has Kelly's range of solutions, growing over the years to reflect the changing needs of businesses and the desires and lifestyles of talent. We have progressed from a traditional office staffing business to a creative, insightful and agile talent company delivering expertise in a portfolio of specialty services. In line with customer demand, we are increasingly delivering a variety of outcome-based services in which we provide specialized talent and operational management of functions and departments on behalf of our customers.

We rank as one of the world’s largest scientific and clinical staffing providers and place talent at various levels in engineering, IT and finance. We are also the leading provider in the K-12 educational staffing market in the U.S., while also providing talent in early childhood education, non-instructional roles and adjunct professors. These services complement our expertise in professional office services, contact center, light industrial and electronic assembly staffing. As work has evolved and talent management has become more complex, we have also developed innovative solutions to help many of the world’s largest companies plan for and manage their workforce through recruitment outsourcing, payroll processing, talent advisory, career transition and supplier management services.

Geographic Breadth of Services

Headquartered in the United States, Kelly provides workforce solutions to a diverse group of customers in the Americas, Europe and the Asia-Pacific regions. Our customer base spans a variety of industries and includes 75 of the Fortune 100™ companies.

In 2020, we assigned nearly 370,000 temporary employees to a variety of customers around the globe.

Description of Business Segments

Kelly is a specialty talent solutions company serving customers of all sizes in a variety of industries. In 2020, Kelly implemented a new operating model and realigned its business into five specialty business units which are also our reportable segments.

Professional & Industrial – delivers staffing, outcome-based and direct-hire services focused on office, professional, light industrial and contact center specialties in the U.S. and Canada, including our KellyConnect product

Science, Engineering & Technology – delivers staffing, outcome-based and direct-hire services focused on science and clinical research, engineering, information technology and telecommunications specialties predominately in the U.S. and Canada and includes our NextGen and Global Technology Associates subsidiaries

Education – delivers staffing, direct-hire and executive search services to the K-12, early childhood and higher education markets in the U.S., and includes several acquisitions: Teachers On Call, Insight Workforce Solutions and Greenwood/Asher & Associates

Outsourcing & Consulting – delivers Managed Service Provider ("MSP"), Recruitment Process Outsourcing ("RPO"), Payroll Process Outsourcing ("PPO") and Talent Advisory Services to customers on a global basis

3


International – delivers staffing and direct-hire services in 15 countries in Europe, as well as Mexico

In addition, we provide staffing services to customers in the Asia-Pacific region through PersolKelly Pte. Ltd., our joint venture with Persol Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Persol Holdings, a leading provider of HR solutions in Japan.

Kelly’s new operating structure enables the Company to focus on specialties with robust demand, promising growth opportunities, and areas in which Kelly excels in attracting and placing talent.
                    
Financial information regarding our reportable segments is included in the Segment Disclosures footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

Business Objectives

By connecting our customers with qualified talent in an ever-evolving world of work, Kelly has a positive impact on the people, businesses and communities we serve. As a destination for top talent and a strategic business partner for our customers, we continue to adopt innovative business practices and forward-looking technologies that drive success in a dynamic market. With more than one-third of the world’s workforce now participating as independent workers, we help companies adopt strategies that recognize and utilize contingent labor, consultants and project-based work as tools to their ongoing success.

We’re also using our position in the middle of the talent supply and demand equation to challenge outdated barriers that hold back far too many people from attaining meaningful work, supporting their families and contributing to the economy. In 2020, Kelly launched its Equity@Work platform, which seeks to upend systemic barriers to employment and make the U.S. labor market more equitable and accessible for more people.



4


Business Operations

Service Marks

We own numerous service marks that are registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the European Union Intellectual Property Office and numerous individual country trademark offices.

Seasonality

Our quarterly operating results are affected by the seasonality of our customers’ businesses which impact the demand for our services. With the exception of our Education operating segment, demand for our services historically has been lower during the first quarter, and typically increases during the remainder of the year. Our Education operating segment generally has its lowest revenue in the third quarter in line with schools’ summer break.

Working Capital

Our working capital requirements are primarily generated from employee payroll which is generally paid weekly or monthly and customer accounts receivable which is generally outstanding for longer periods, with days sales outstanding ("DSO") of 64 days as of January 3, 2021. Since receipts from customers lag payroll payments to temporary employees, working capital requirements increase and operating cash flows decrease substantially in periods of growth. Conversely, when economic activity slows, working capital requirements may substantially decrease and operating cash flows increase. Such increases dissipate over time if the economic downturn continues for an extended period.

Customers

Kelly’s client portfolio spans companies of all sizes, ranging from local and mid-sized businesses to the Fortune 500. In 2020, an estimated 53% of total company revenue was attributed to our largest 100 customers. Our largest single customer accounted for approximately five percent of total revenue in 2020.

Government Contracts

Although we conduct business under various federal, state, and local government contracts, no one contract represents more than four percent of total company revenue in 2020.

Competition

The worldwide workforce solutions industry is competitive and highly fragmented. In the United States, we compete with other firms that operate nationally and offer a breadth of service similar to ours, and with thousands of smaller regional or specialized companies that compete in varying degrees. Outside the United States, we face similar competition. In 2020, our largest competitors were Randstad, Adecco Group, ManpowerGroup Inc., Recruit Holdings and Allegis Group.

Key factors that influence our success are quality of service, price and breadth of service, including our ability to manage staffing suppliers.

Quality of service is highly dependent on the availability of qualified, competent talent, and our ability to promptly and effectively recruit, screen, train, retain and manage a pool of employees who match the skills required by our customers. We must balance competitive pricing pressures, which may intensify during an economic downturn, with the need to attract and retain a qualified workforce. Price competition in the staffing industry is intense, particularly for education, office clerical and light industrial personnel, and pricing pressure from customers and competitors continues to be significant.

The ability to manage staffing suppliers has become more critical as customers seek a single supplier to manage all of their demand for contingent talent. Kelly’s talent supply chain management approach seeks to address this requirement for our larger customers, enabling us to deliver talent wherever and whenever they need it around the world.

Corporate Sustainability

Kelly is committed to the highest standards of corporate citizenship. Given the worldwide reach of our workers, clients, suppliers, and partners, we recognize the global impact of our business practices and the importance of public accountability.
5


We continue to advocate on behalf of the global workforce, improve our workplaces, contribute to the communities we serve, and ensure our actions are socially, ethically, and environmentally responsible.

Regulation

Our services are subject to a variety of complex federal and state laws and regulations. We continuously monitor legislation and regulatory changes for their potential effect on our business. We invest in technology and process improvements to implement required changes while minimizing the impact on our operating efficiency and effectiveness. Regulatory cost increases are passed through to our clients to the fullest extent possible. As a service business, we are not materially impacted by federal, state, or local laws that regulate the discharge of materials into the environment.

Human Capital

We are a talent solutions company dedicated to connecting people to work in ways that enrich their lives and our employees are critical to achieving this noble purpose. In order to compete and succeed in our highly competitive and rapidly evolving market, it is crucial that we attract and retain experienced internal employees, as well as talent to work for our customers. As part of these efforts, we strive to offer competitive total rewards programs, foster an inclusive and diverse environment, and give employees the opportunity to give back to their communities and make a social impact.

First and foremost, the success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our people. Accordingly, we are committed to the health, safety and wellness of our employees and talent. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented significant operating environment changes that we determined were in the best interest of our employees and talent, as well as the communities in which we operate, and which comply with government regulations. This includes having the vast majority of our internal employees work from home, while implementing additional safety measures for employees and talent continuing critical on-site work.

Internal Employees

As of January 3, 2021, we employed approximately 1,000 staff members at our corporate headquarters in Troy, Michigan, approximately 3,300 staff members in other locations in the United States and an additional 2,800 in our international locations. While our retention of employees improved year over year, it still lags our comparable external benchmarks. Our retention rates for employees identified as High Performing and High Potential align with our comparable external benchmark.

Compensation and Benefits. Kelly is committed to providing competitive, equitable and fiscally responsible total rewards programs to our employees.  Our compensation programs are designed to attract, retain and reward talented individuals who possess the skills necessary to achieve our strategic goals and create long-term value for our shareholders. We provide employees with competitive compensation opportunities, with strong pay for performance linkages that include a mix of base salary, short-term incentives and, in the case of our more senior employees, long-term equity awards. We believe that our programs provide fair and competitive opportunities that align employee and stockholder interests. In addition to cash and equity compensation, we also offer employees competitive benefits such as life and health (medical, dental and vision) insurance, paid time off, wellness benefits, and defined contribution retirement plans.  Pay and benefits programs provided to our international employees are in line with competitive local practice.

Inclusion and Diversity. Since 1947, our founder fought to increase access to work for women and we’ve long been an outspoken advocate for the value temporary and independent workers bring to the workplace. We are committed to fostering an inclusive and diverse workforce.  For example, a significant majority of Kelly's U.S. workforce is female, including a majority of director and above roles. We believe an inclusive environment with diverse teams creates a workplace that is conducive to producing more creative solutions, results in better, more innovative products and services and presents Kelly as a workplace leader, aiding our ability to attract and retain key talent. We are focused on fostering a culture of belonging, where everyone feels welcomed and respected and can thrive as we work together.

Community Involvement. We consider sustainability to be a guiding principle in strengthening the relationship with our global workforce, suppliers and customers. Through our programs and initiatives, we seek to contribute to improving the quality of life of our employees, their families, as well as the communities in which they operate. Designed on the concept of social investment, our approach ensures the creation of future development capacities instead of aiding on isolated occasions. We support initiatives where our employees can actively engage in the causes they believe in that are also connected to our sustainability strategy. Through our Equity@Work platform, we are living our commitment to ensure equitable access to work and growth for all by creating alliances with like-minded companies, policy groups and institutions to positively impact the way companies hire, advance and help more people thrive.
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For more information on our diversity and inclusion and community involvement initiatives, please see our Corporate Responsibility report which is available at kellyservices.com.

Talent

In addition to our internal employees, Kelly recruits talent on behalf of our customers on a global basis.  In 2020, we placed nearly 370,000 individuals in positions with our customers.  In all of these instances, Kelly remains the employer of record for all talent working at our customer locations.  This means that we retain responsibility for all assignments, wages, benefits, workers’ compensation insurance, and the employers’ share of applicable payroll taxes as well as the administration of the employees' share of these taxes.  We also offer our Kelly talent access to competitive health and benefit programs while they are working with us.

Foreign Operations

For information regarding sales, earnings from operations and long-lived assets by domestic and foreign operations, please refer to the information presented in the Segment Disclosures footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements, presented in Part II, Item 8 of this report.

Access to Company Information

We electronically file our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The SEC maintains an Internet website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.

We make available, free of charge, through our website, and by responding to requests addressed to our senior vice president of investor relations, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports. These reports are available as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our website address is: www.kellyservices.com. The information contained on our website, or on other websites linked to our website, is not part of this report.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.

Risks Related to Macroeconomic Conditions

Our business is significantly affected by fluctuations in general economic conditions.

Demand for staffing services is significantly affected by the general level of economic activity and employment in the United States and the other countries in which we operate. When economic activity increases, temporary employees are often added before full-time employees are hired. As economic activity slows, however, many companies reduce their use of temporary employees before laying off full-time employees. Significant swings in economic activity historically have had a disproportionate impact on staffing industry volumes. We may not fully benefit from times of increased economic activity should we experience shortages in the supply of temporary employees. We may also experience more competitive pricing pressure and slower customer payments during periods of economic downturn. A substantial portion of our revenues and earnings are generated by our business operations in the United States. Any significant economic downturn in the United States or certain other countries in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business has been adversely impacted by the recent novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and we expect adverse business and economic conditions will continue in the future.

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus across the globe continues to negatively impact the economies and general welfare in the countries in which we operate, as well as in the countries in which demand for our customers' goods and services are created. As the pandemic continues, we have maintained our focus on the health and safety of our employees, contractors, customers, and suppliers around the world. Our emergency management team continues to track the impact of COVID-19, including the deployment of vaccines, implementation of health and safety measures across our various business segments, and development of plans for safely continuing operations during the pandemic.

The demand for staffing services is significantly affected by general economic conditions. The economic downturn and uncertainties related to the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic have had and are expected to have an adverse impact on the staffing industry and the Company’s ability to forecast its financial performance. Containment and mitigation measures taken to combat the spread of COVID-19, including travel bans, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, temporary shutdowns, social distancing, and other health and safety precautions have decreased customer demand for staffing services, especially in our Education segment where many school districts have remained closed or partially closed for physical instruction since March 2020. The disruptions in on-site instruction and the uncertainties related to the deployment of services via virtual and hybrid education models and the timing of vaccine availability, may continue to materially impact the Company’s financial performance. We continue to assess and address the impact of COVID-19 on the financial viability of third parties on which we rely to provide staffing services or manage critical business functions.

The COVID-19 outbreak and related containment and mitigation efforts resulted in a substantial decline in our revenues. We expect that the revenue decline will continue in the future until demand for our services recovers. We are not able to predict the timing or the extent of the recovery. Business decisions by customers made in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including automation, social distancing, and remote work, if sustained in a post-pandemic business environment, could negatively impact customer demand for our services.

In the second quarter, we took a number of cost management actions to address declines in our revenues and adverse business conditions. Certain actions, such as reducing officer and employee compensation and furloughing and redeploying employees, ended in the fourth quarter. Other actions taken, including reducing full-time employee staffing levels, reducing discretionary expenses and projects, enacting certain hiring freezes and suspending dividends payable on our common stock, continue. There can be no assurance that these actions will be adequate, and further actions may be required in the future. Due to uncertainty regarding the sufficiency of the containment and mitigation measures to combat the COVID-19 outbreak and the duration of their implementation, coupled with the unknown timeline for effective deployment of COVID-19 vaccines to a large portion of the workforce, the extent or the duration of the impact on our business, financial condition, ability to meet financial covenants
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and restrictions in our debt facilities, and results of operations cannot be predicted with certainty, however, such impacts could be material.

Our stock price may be subject to significant volatility and could suffer a decline in value.

The market price of our common stock may be subject to significant volatility. We believe that many factors, including several which are beyond our control, have a significant effect on the market price of our common stock. These include:

actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results;
announcements of new services by us or our competitors;
announcements relating to strategic relationships or acquisitions;
changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
changes in general economic conditions;
actual or anticipated changes in laws and government regulations;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation;
any major change in our board or management;
changes in industry trends or conditions; and
sales of significant amounts of our common stock or other securities in the market.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the NASDAQ Global Market in particular, have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of listed companies. These broad market and industry factors may seriously harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. A securities class action suit against us could result in substantial costs, potential liabilities and the diversion of our management’s attention and resources. Further, our operating results may be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors. In such event, the price of our common stock may decline.

Risks Related to our Industry Segment

We operate in a highly competitive industry with low barriers to entry and may be unable to compete successfully against existing or new competitors.

The worldwide staffing services market is highly competitive with limited barriers to entry. We compete in global, national, regional and local markets with full-service and specialized temporary staffing and consulting companies. Randstad, Adecco Group, ManpowerGroup Inc., Recruit Holdings and Allegis Group, are considerably larger than we are and have more substantial marketing and financial resources. Additionally, the emergence of online staffing platforms or other forms of disintermediation may pose a competitive threat to our services, which operate under a more traditional staffing business model. Price competition in the staffing industry is intense, particularly for the provision of office clerical, light industrial and education personnel. We expect that the level of competition will remain high, which could limit our ability to maintain or increase our market share or profitability.

The number of customers distributing their staffing service purchases among a broader group of competitors continues to increase which, in some cases, may make it more difficult for us to obtain new customers, or to retain or maintain our current share of business, with existing customers. We also face the risk that our current or prospective customers may decide to provide similar services internally. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter increased competition in the future.

Technological advances may significantly disrupt the labor market and weaken demand for human capital.

Our success is directly dependent on our customers’ demands for talent. As technology continues to evolve, more tasks currently performed by people may be replaced by automation, robotics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other technological advances outside of our control. This trend poses a risk to the staffing industry, particularly in lower-skill job
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categories that may be more susceptible to such replacement. If we are unsuccessful in responding to this potential shift in customer demand due to advancing technology it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Competition rules arising from government legislation, litigation or regulatory activity may limit how we structure and market our services.

As a leading staffing and recruiting company, we are closely scrutinized by government agencies under U.S. and foreign competition laws. An increasing number of governments are regulating competition law activities, leading to increased scrutiny. Some jurisdictions also allow competitors or consumers to assert claims of anti-competitive conduct.

The European Commission and its various competition authorities have targeted industry trade associations in which we participate. Any government regulatory actions may hamper our ability to provide the cost-effective benefits to consumers and businesses, reducing the attractiveness of our services and the revenues that come from them. New competition law actions could be initiated. The outcome of such actions, or steps taken to avoid them, could adversely affect us in a variety of ways, including:

We may have to choose between withdrawing certain services from certain geographies to avoid fines or designing and developing alternative versions of those services to comply with government rulings, which may entail a delay in a service delivery.
Adverse rulings may act as precedent in other competition law proceedings.

Our business is subject to extensive government regulation, which may restrict the types of employment services we are permitted to offer or result in additional or increased taxes, including payroll taxes or other costs that reduce our revenues and earnings.

The temporary employment industry is heavily regulated in many of the countries in which we operate. Changes in laws or government regulations may result in prohibition or restriction of certain types of employment services we are permitted to offer or the imposition of new or additional benefit, licensing or tax requirements that could reduce our revenues and earnings. In particular, we are subject to state unemployment taxes in the U.S., which typically increase during periods of increased levels of unemployment. We also receive benefits, such as the work opportunity income tax credit in the U.S., that regularly expire and may not be reinstated. There can be no assurance that we will be able to increase the fees charged to our customers in a timely manner and in a sufficient amount to fully cover increased costs as a result of any changes in laws or government regulations. Any future changes in laws or government regulations, or interpretations thereof, including additional laws and regulations enacted at a local level may make it more difficult or expensive for us to provide staffing services and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Unexpected changes in claim trends on our workers’ compensation, unemployment, disability and medical benefit plans may negatively impact our financial condition.

We self-insure, or otherwise bear financial responsibility for, a significant portion of expected losses under our workers’ compensation program, disability and medical benefits claims. Unexpected changes in claim trends, including the severity and frequency of claims, actuarial estimates and medical cost inflation, could result in costs that are significantly different than initially reported. If future claims-related liabilities increase due to unforeseen circumstances, or if we must make unfavorable adjustments to accruals for prior accident years, our costs could increase significantly. In addition, unemployment insurance costs are dependent on benefit claims experience from employees which may vary from current levels and result in increased costs. There can be no assurance that we will be able to increase the fees charged to our customers in a timely manner and in a sufficient amount to cover increased costs as a result of any changes in claims-related liabilities.

We may have additional tax liabilities that exceed our estimates.

We are subject to a multitude of federal, state, local, and foreign taxes in the jurisdictions we operate in, including the tax provisions of the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of
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2010. Our tax expense could be materially impacted by changes in tax laws in these jurisdictions, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities or changes in the mix of income by country. The overall size of our workforce and visibility of our industry may make it more likely we become a target of government investigations, and we are regularly subject to audit by tax authorities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical tax provisions and accruals. The results of an audit or litigation could materially harm our business.

Risks Related to Strategy and Execution

Our future performance depends on the Company’s effective execution of our business strategy.

The performance of the Company’s business is dependent on our ability to effectively execute our growth strategy. Our strategy includes targeted investments in select specialty areas, focusing on growth platforms and implementation of a robust operating model to bridge our strategy to execution. If we are unsuccessful in executing our strategy, we may not achieve either our stated goal of revenue growth or the intended productivity improvements, which could negatively impact profitability. Even if effectively executed, our strategy may be insufficient considering changes in market conditions, technology, competitive pressures or other external factors.

If we fail to successfully develop new service offerings, we may be unable to retain and acquire customers, resulting in a decline in revenues.

The Company’s successful execution of our growth strategy requires that we match evolving customer expectations with evolving service offerings. The development of new service offerings requires accurate anticipation of customer needs and emerging technology trends. We must make long-term investments in our information technology infrastructure and commit resources to development efforts before knowing whether these investments will result in service offerings that achieve customer acceptance and generate the revenues required to provide desired returns. If we fail to accurately anticipate and meet our customers’ needs through the development of new service offerings or do not successfully deliver new service offerings, our competitive position could weaken, causing a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

A loss of major customers or a change in such customers’ buying behavior could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We serve many large corporate customers through high volume global service agreements. While we intend to maintain or increase our revenues and earnings from our major corporate customers, we are exposed to risks arising from the possible loss of major customer accounts. The deterioration of the financial condition or business prospects of these customers could reduce their need for our services and result in a significant decrease in the revenues and earnings we derive from these customers. Continuing merger and acquisition activity involving our large corporate customers could put existing business at risk or impose additional pricing pressures. Since receipts from customers generally lag payroll to temporary employees, the bankruptcy of a major customer could have a material adverse impact on our ability to meet our working capital requirements. Additionally, most of our customer contracts can be terminated by the customer on short notice without penalty. This creates uncertainty with respect to the revenues and earnings we may recognize with respect to our customer contracts.

Our business with large customer accounts reflects a market-driven shift in buying behaviors in which reliance on a small number of staffing partners has shifted to reliance upon a network of talent providers. The movement from single-sourced to competitively sourced staffing contracts may also substantially reduce our future revenues from such customers. While Kelly has sought to address this trend, including providing Contingent Workforce Outsourcing ("CWO") services within our Outsourcing & Consulting ("OCG") segment, we may not be selected or retained as the CWO service provider by our large customers. This may result in a material decrease in the revenue we derive from providing staffing services to such customers. In addition, revenues may be materially impacted from our decision to exit customers due to pricing pressure or other business factors.

Our business with the federal government and government contractors presents additional risk considerations. We must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of federal government contracts.
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Failure to meet these obligations could result in civil penalties, fines, suspension of payments, reputational damage, disqualification from doing business with government agencies and other sanctions or adverse consequences. Government procurement practices may change in ways that impose additional costs or risks upon us or pose a competitive disadvantage. Our employees may be unable to obtain or retain the security clearances necessary to conduct business under certain contracts, or we could lose or be unable to secure or retain a necessary facility clearance. Government agencies may temporarily or permanently lose funding for awarded contracts, or there could be delays in the start-up of projects already awarded and funded.

We are at risk of damage to our brand, which is important to our success.

Our success depends, in part, on the goodwill associated with our brand. Because we assign employees to work under the direction and supervision of our customer at work locations not under Kelly’s control, we are at risk of our employees engaging in unauthorized conduct that could harm our reputation. Our Education segment is particularly susceptible to this exposure. Any incident, act or omission that damages Kelly’s reputation could cause the loss of current and future customers, additional regulatory scrutiny and liability to third parties, which could negatively impact profitability.

As we increasingly offer services outside the realm of traditional staffing, including business process outsourcing and services intended to connect talent to independent work, we are exposed to additional risks which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our business strategy focuses on driving profitable growth in key specialty areas, including through business process outsourcing arrangements, where we provide operational management of our customers’ non-core functions or departments. This could expose us to certain risks unique to that business, including product liability or product recalls. As the nature of work changes, we deliver services that connect talent to independent work with our customers and expose the Company to risks of misclassifying workers, which could result in regulatory audits and penalties. Although we have internal vetting processes intended to control such risks, there is no assurance that these processes will be effective or that we will be able to identify these potential risks in a timely manner. Our specialties also include professional engineering services where design, construction or systems failures and project delays can result in substantial injury or damages. We attempt to mitigate and transfer such risks through contractual arrangements with our customers; however, these services may give rise to liability claims and litigation. While we maintain insurance in types and amounts we believe are appropriate for the contemplated risks, there is no assurance that such insurance coverage will remain available on reasonable terms or be sufficient in amount or scope.

We are increasingly dependent on third parties for the execution of critical functions.

We rely on third parties to support critical functions within our operations, including portions of our technology infrastructure, vendor management, customer relationship management, and applicant tracking systems. If we are unable to contract with third parties having the specialized skills needed to support our growth strategies or integrate their products and services with our business, or if they fail to meet our performance requirements, the results of operations could be adversely impacted. We also rely on supplier partnerships to deliver our services to customers in certain territories. If our suppliers fail to meet our standards and expectations or are unfavorably regarded by our customers, our ability to discontinue the relationship may be limited and could result in reputational damage, customer loss, and adversely affect our results of operations. For example, in the Asia-Pacific region, we rely on third parties and partners to provide certain back office and administrative services to our operations in that region. The failure or inability to perform on the part of one or more of these critical suppliers or partners could cause significant disruptions and increased costs.

Our information technology strategy may not yield its intended results.

Our information technology strategy includes improvements to our applicant onboarding and tracking systems, order management, and improvements to financial processes such as billing and accounts payable through system consolidation and upgrades. We do not use a single enterprise resource planning system, which limits our ability to react to evolving technology and customer expectations and increases the amount of investment and effort necessary to provide global service integration to our customers. Although the technology strategy is intended to increase productivity and operating efficiencies, these initiatives may not yield their intended results. Any delays in completing, or an inability to successfully complete, these technology initiatives or an inability to achieve the anticipated efficiencies could adversely affect our operations, liquidity and financial condition. Some of the initiatives are dependent on the products and services of third party vendors. If our vendors are unable
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to provide these services, or fail to meet our standards and expectations, we could experience business interruptions or data loss which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Past and future acquisitions may not be successful.

As a part of our growth strategy, we continue to monitor the market for acquisition targets to bolster our inorganic growth aspirations. Acquisitions involve a number of risks, including the diversion of management’s attention from its existing operations, the failure to retain key personnel or customers of an acquired business, the failure to realize anticipated benefits such as cost savings and revenue enhancements, potential substantial transaction costs associated with acquisitions, the assumption of unknown liabilities of the acquired business and the inability to successfully integrate the business into our operations. There can be no assurance that any past or future acquired businesses will generate anticipated revenues or earnings.

Further, acquisitions result in goodwill and intangible assets which have the risk of impairment if the future operating results and cash flows of such acquisitions are lower than our initial estimates. In the event that we determine that there is an impairment, we may be required to record a significant non-cash charge to earnings that could adversely affect our results of operations.

Investments in equity affiliates expose us to additional risks and uncertainties.

We participate, or may participate in the future, in certain investments in equity affiliates, such as joint ventures or other equity method investments with strategic partners, including PersolKelly Pte. Ltd. These arrangements expose us to a number of risks, including the risk that the management of the combined venture may not be able to fulfill their performance obligations under the management agreements or that the joint venture parties may be incapable of providing the required financial support. Additionally, improper, illegal or unethical actions by the venture management could have a negative impact on the reputation of the venture and our Company.

Further, equity method investments, including our investment in PersolKelly Pte. Ltd., are reviewed for indicators of impairment on a quarterly basis or whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying amount may be other-than-temporarily impaired. Changes in economic or operating conditions impacting our estimates and assumptions could result in the impairment of equity method investments. In the event that we determine that there is an impairment, we may be required to record a significant non-cash charge to earnings that could adversely affect our results of operations.

Risks Related to Operating a Global Enterprise

We conduct a significant portion of our operations outside of the United States and we are subject to risks relating to our international business activities, including fluctuations in currency exchange rates and numerous legal and regulatory requirements.

We conduct our business in major staffing markets throughout the world. Our operations outside the United States are subject to risks inherent in international business activities, including:

fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
restrictions or limitations on the transfer of funds;
government intrusions including asset seizures, expropriations or de facto control;
varying economic and political conditions;
differences in cultures and business practices;
differences in employment and tax laws and regulations;
differences in accounting and reporting requirements;
differences in labor and market conditions;
compliance with trade sanctions;
changing and, in some cases, complex or ambiguous laws and regulations; and
litigation, investigations and claims.
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Our operations outside the United States are reported in the applicable local currencies and then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable currency exchange rates for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. Exchange rates for currencies of these countries may fluctuate in relation to the U.S. dollar and these fluctuations may have an adverse or favorable effect on our operating results when translating foreign currencies into U.S. dollars.

Our investment in Persol Holdings exposes us to potential market and currency exchange risks.

We are exposed to market and currency risks on our investment in Persol Holdings. The investment is stated at fair value and is marked to market through net earnings. Changes in the market price are based on the Persol Holdings stock price as listed in the Tokyo stock exchange, and such changes may be material. Foreign currency fluctuations on this yen-denominated investment are reflected as a component of other comprehensive income and, accordingly, the exchange rate fluctuations may have a material adverse or favorable effect on our financial statements.

Our international operations subject us to potential liability under anti-corruption, trade protection, and other laws and regulations.

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations (“Anti-Corruption Laws”) prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors, or agents. While we devote substantial resources to our global compliance programs and have implemented policies, training, and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments, our employees, vendors, or agents may violate our policies. Our failure to comply with Anti-Corruption Laws could result in significant fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Operations outside the U.S. may be affected by changes in trade protection laws, policies and measures, and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. As a result, we may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage.

Risks Related to Human Capital

We depend on our ability to attract, develop and retain qualified permanent full-time employees.

As we aim to expand the number of clients utilizing our higher margin specialty solutions in support of our growth strategy, we are highly reliant on individuals who possess specialized knowledge and skills to lead related specialty solutions and operations. There can be no assurance that qualified personnel will continue to be available. Competition for individuals with proven specialized knowledge and skills is intense, and demand for these individuals is expected to remain strong in the foreseeable future. Our success is dependent on our ability to attract, develop and retain these employees.

We depend on our ability to attract and retain qualified temporary personnel (employed directly by us or through third-party suppliers).

We depend on our ability to attract qualified temporary personnel who possess the skills and experience necessary to meet the staffing requirements of our customers. We must continually evaluate our base of available qualified personnel to keep pace with changing customer needs. Competition for individuals with proven professional skills is intense, and demand for these individuals is expected to remain strong for the foreseeable future. There can be no assurance that qualified personnel will continue to be available in sufficient numbers and on terms of employment acceptable to us and our customers. Our success is substantially dependent on our ability to recruit and retain qualified temporary personnel.

We may be exposed to employment-related claims and losses, including class action lawsuits and collective actions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We employ and assign personnel in the workplaces of other businesses. The risks of these activities include possible claims relating to:

discrimination and harassment;
wrongful termination or retaliation;
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violations of employment rights related to employment screening or privacy issues;
apportionment between us and our customer of legal obligations as an employer of temporary employees;
classification of workers as employees or independent contractors;
employment of unauthorized workers;
violations of wage and hour requirements;
retroactive entitlement to employee benefits, including health insurance;
failure to comply with leave policy requirements; and
errors and omissions by our temporary employees, particularly for the actions of professionals such as attorneys, accountants, teachers and scientists.

We are also subject to potential risks relating to misuse of customer proprietary information, misappropriation of funds, death or injury to our employees, damage to customer facilities due to negligence of temporary employees, criminal activity and other similar occurrences. We may incur fines and other losses or negative publicity with respect to these risks. In addition, these occurrences may give rise to litigation, which could be time-consuming and expensive. In the U.S. and certain other countries in which we operate, new employment and labor laws and regulations have been proposed or adopted that may increase the potential exposure of employers to employment-related claims and litigation. In addition, such laws and regulations are arising with increasing frequency at the state and local level in the U.S. and the resulting inconsistency in such laws and regulations results in additional complexity. There can be no assurance that the corporate policies and practices we have in place to help reduce our exposure to these risks will be effective or that we will not experience losses as a result of these risks. Although we maintain insurance in types and amounts we believe are appropriate in light of the aforementioned exposures, there can also be no assurance that such insurance policies will remain available on reasonable terms or be sufficient in amount or scope of coverage. Additionally, should we have a material inability to produce records as a consequence of litigation or a government investigation, the cost or consequences of such matters could become much greater.

Risks Related to Cyber Security and Data Privacy

Damage to our key data centers could affect our ability to sustain critical business applications.

Many business processes critical to our continued operation are hosted in outsourced facilities in America and Europe. Certain other processes are hosted at our corporate headquarters complex or occur in cloud-based computer environments. These critical processes include, but are not limited to, payroll, customer reporting, and order management. Although we have taken steps to protect all such instances by establishing robust data backup and disaster recovery capabilities, the loss of these data centers or access to the cloud-based environments could create a substantial risk of business interruption which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A failure to maintain the privacy of information entrusted to us could have significant adverse consequences.

In the normal course of business we control, process, or have access to personal information regarding our own employees or employment candidates, as well as that of many of our customers or managed suppliers. Information concerning these individuals may also reside in systems controlled by third parties for purposes such as employee benefits and payroll administration. The legal and regulatory environment concerning data privacy is becoming more complex and challenging, and the potential consequences of non-compliance have become more severe. Changes in the regulatory environment, such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation and the California Consumer Privacy Act, impose additional compliance requirements related to the collection, use, processing, transfer, disclosure, and retention of personal information, which can increase operating costs and resources to accomplish. Any failure to abide by these regulations or to protect such personal information from inappropriate access or disclosure, whether through social engineering or by accident or other cause, could have severe consequences including fines, litigation, regulatory sanctions, reputational damage, and loss of customers or employees. Although we have a program designed to preserve the privacy of the personal data that we control or process, as well as personal data that we entrust to third parties, there can be no assurance that our program will meet all current and future regulatory requirements, anticipate all potential methods of unauthorized access, or prevent all inappropriate disclosures. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all such costs or consequences, and there can be no assurance that any insurance that we now maintain will remain available under acceptable terms.

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Cyberattacks or other breaches of network or information technology security could have an adverse effect on our systems, services, reputation and financial results.

We rely upon multiple information technology systems and networks, some of which are web-based or managed by third parties, to process, transmit, and store electronic information and to manage or support a variety of critical business processes and activities. Our networks and applications are increasingly accessed from locations and by devices not within our physical control, and the specifics of our technology systems and networks may vary by geographic region. In the course of ordinary business, we may store or process proprietary or confidential information concerning our business and financial performance and current, past or prospective employees, customers, vendors and managed suppliers. The secure and consistent operation of these systems, networks and processes is critical to our business operations. Moreover, our temporary employees may be exposed to, or have access to, similar information in the course of their customer assignments. We routinely experience cyberattacks, which may include the use or attempted use of malware, ransomware, computer viruses, phishing, social engineering schemes and other means of attempted disruption or unauthorized access. Additionally, the rapid pace of change in information security and cyber security threats could result in a heightened threat level for us or companies in our industry with little notice. Our relationships with third parties, including suppliers we manage, customers, and vendors creates potential avenues for malicious actors to initiate a supply chain attack. Even in instances where we are not a target of a malicious actor, we could be exposed to risk due to our relationships and business processes with these third parties.

The actions we take to reduce the risk of impairments to our operations or systems and breaches of confidential or proprietary data may not be sufficient to prevent or repel future cyber events or other impairments of our networks or information technologies. An event involving the destruction, modification, accidental or unauthorized release, or theft of sensitive information from systems related to our business, or an attack that results in damage to or unavailability of our key technology systems or those of critical vendors (e.g., ransomware), could result in damage to our reputation, fines, regulatory sanctions or interventions, contractual or financial liabilities, additional compliance and remediation costs, loss of employees or customers, loss of payment card network privileges, operational disruptions and other forms of costs, losses or reimbursements, any of which could materially adversely affect our operations or financial condition. Our cyber security and business continuity plans, and those of our third parties with whom we do business, may not be effective in anticipating, preventing and effectively responding to all potential cyber risk exposures. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all such costs or consequences, and there can be no assurance that any insurance that we now maintain will remain available under acceptable terms.

Risks Related to Our Capital Structure

Our controlling stockholder exercises voting control over our company and has the ability to elect or remove from office all of our directors.

The Terence E. Adderley Revocable Trust K (“Trust K”) which became irrevocable upon the death of Terence E. Adderley on October 9, 2018, is the controlling stockholder. In accordance with the provisions of Trust K, William U. Parfet, David M. Hempstead and Andrew H. Curoe were appointed as successor trustees of the trust. Mr. Parfet is the brother of Donald R. Parfet, the Chairman of the board of directors of the Company. The trustees, acting by majority vote, have sole investment and voting power over the shares of Class B common stock held by Trust K, which represent approximately 91.6% of the outstanding Class B shares. The voting rights of our Class B common stock are perpetual, and our Class B common stock is not subject to transfer restrictions or mandatory conversion obligations under our certificate of incorporation or bylaws.

Our Class B common stock is the only class of our common stock entitled to voting rights. The trustees of Trust K are therefore able to exercise voting control with respect to all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election or removal from office of all members of the Company’s board of directors.

We are not subject to certain of the listing standards that normally apply to companies whose shares are quoted on the NASDAQ Global Market.

Our Class A and Class B common stock are quoted on the NASDAQ Global Market. Under the listing standards of the NASDAQ Global Market, we are deemed to be a “controlled company” due to Trust K having voting power with respect to more than fifty percent of our outstanding voting stock. A controlled company is not required to have a majority of its board of
16


directors comprised of independent directors. Director nominees are not required to be selected or recommended for the board’s selection by a majority of independent directors or a nominations committee comprised solely of independent directors, nor do the NASDAQ Global Market listing standards require a controlled company to certify the adoption of a formal written charter or board resolution, as applicable, addressing the nominations process. A controlled company is also exempt from NASDAQ Global Market’s requirements regarding the determination of officer compensation by a majority of independent directors or a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors. A controlled company is required to have an audit committee composed of at least three directors who are independent as defined under the rules of both the SEC and the NASDAQ Global Market. The NASDAQ Global Market further requires that all members of the audit committee have the ability to read and understand fundamental financial statements and that at least one member of the audit committee possess financial sophistication. The independent directors must also meet at least twice a year in meetings at which only they are present.

We currently comply with the listing standards of the NASDAQ Global Market that do not apply to controlled companies. Our compliance is voluntary, however, and there can be no assurance that we will continue to comply with these standards in the future.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law may delay or prevent an acquisition of our Company.

Our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could make it harder for a third party to acquire us without the consent of our board of directors. For example, if a potential acquirer were to make a hostile bid for us, the acquirer would not be able to call a special meeting of stockholders to remove our board of directors or act by written consent without a meeting. The acquirer would also be required to provide advance notice of its proposal to replace directors at any annual meeting and would not be able to cumulate votes at a meeting, which would require the acquirer to hold more shares to gain representation on the board of directors than if cumulative voting were permitted.

Our board of directors also has the ability to issue additional shares of common stock which could significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer. In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law limits mergers and other business combination transactions involving 15 percent or greater stockholders of Delaware corporations unless certain board or stockholder approval requirements are satisfied. These provisions and other similar provisions make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us without negotiation.

Our board of directors could choose not to negotiate with an acquirer that it did not believe was in our strategic interests. If an acquirer is discouraged from offering to acquire us or prevented from successfully completing a hostile acquisition by these or other measures, our shareholders could lose the opportunity to sell their shares at a favorable price.

The holders of shares of our Class A common stock are not entitled to voting rights.

Under our certificate of incorporation, the holders of shares of our Class A common stock are not entitled to voting rights, except as otherwise required by Delaware law. As a result, Class A common stockholders do not have the right to vote for the election of directors or in connection with most other matters submitted for the vote of our stockholders, including mergers and certain other business combination transactions involving the Company.

We may not be able to realize value from, or otherwise preserve and utilize, our tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards.

Provisions in U.S. and foreign tax law could limit the use of tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards in the event of an ownership change. In general, an ownership change occurs under U.S. tax law if there is a change in the corporation’s equity ownership that exceeds 50% over a rolling three-year period. If we experience an ownership change, inclusive of our Class A and Class B common stock, our tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards generated prior to the ownership change may be subject to annual limitations that could reduce, eliminate or defer their utilization. Such limitation could materially impact our financial condition and results of operations.

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Failure to maintain specified financial covenants in our bank credit facilities, or credit market events beyond our control, could adversely restrict our financial and operating flexibility and subject us to other risks, including risk of loss of access to capital markets.

Our bank credit facilities contain covenants that require us to maintain specified financial ratios and satisfy other financial conditions. During 2020 we met all of the covenant requirements. Our ability to continue to meet these financial covenants, particularly with respect to interest coverage (see Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements), cannot be assured. If we default under this or any other of these requirements, the lenders could declare all outstanding borrowings, accrued interest and fees to be due and payable or significantly increase the cost of the facility. Additionally, our credit facilities contain cross-default provisions. In these circumstances, there can be no assurance that we would have sufficient liquidity to repay or refinance this indebtedness at favorable rates or at all. Events beyond our control could result in the failure of one or more of our banks, reducing our access to liquidity and potentially resulting in reduced financial and operating flexibility. If broader credit markets were to experience dislocation, our potential access to other funding sources would be limited.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.

Our headquarters is located in Troy, Michigan where corporate, subsidiary and divisional offices operate from both leased and owned facilities. Our remaining business operations in the U.S., as well as our international locations, are conducted in leased facilities. During 2020, as the result of COVID-19, the majority of our internal employees have also conducted business remotely as the result of governmental orders or our internal policies designed to protect the health and safety of our employees.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

The Company is continuously engaged in litigation, threatened ligation, claims, audits or investigations arising in the ordinary course of its business, such as matters alleging employment discrimination, wage and hour violations, claims for indemnification or liability, violations of privacy rights, anti-competition regulations, commercial and contractual disputes, and tax related matters which could result in a material adverse outcome. We record accruals for loss contingencies when we believe it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. Such accruals are recorded in accounts payable and accrued liabilities and in accrued workers’ compensation and other claims in the consolidated balance sheet. The Company maintains insurance coverage which may cover certain claims. When claims exceed the applicable policy deductible and realization of recovery of the claim from existing insurance policies is deemed probable, the Company records receivables from the insurance company for the excess amount, which are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the consolidated balance sheet.

While the outcome of these matters currently pending cannot be predicted with certainty, we believe that the resolution of any such proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

In January 2018, the Hungarian Competition Authority initiated proceedings against the Company, along with a local industry trade association and its members, due to alleged infringement of national competition regulations. The Authority announced its decision on December 18, 2020, levying a fine against the trade association with joint and several secondary liabilities placed on the 20 member companies. Our apportioned secondary liability is approximately $300,000. Member companies may exercise their right to challenge the decision, which could impact the apportionment. However, we anticipate resolution within this year. The Company does not believe that resolution of this matter will have a material adverse effect upon the Company’s competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial position.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.

Not applicable.

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PART II 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES. 

Market Information and Dividends 

Our Class A and Class B common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbols “KELYA” and “KELYB,” respectively. The high and low selling prices for our Class A common stock and Class B common stock as quoted by the NASDAQ Global Market and the dividends paid on the common stock for each quarterly period in the last two fiscal years are reported in the table below. Our ability to pay dividends is subject to compliance with certain financial covenants contained in our debt facilities, as described in the Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements. 
 Per share amounts (in dollars)
First
Quarter
Second
Quarter
Third
Quarter
Fourth
Quarter
Year
2020     
Class A common     
High$22.77 $18.18 $19.89 $23.00 $23.00 
Low10.13 11.01 13.55 15.56 10.13 
Class B common
High21.78 18.14 90.36 22.70 90.36 
Low10.52 10.35 14.04 15.50 10.35 
Dividends0.075 — — — 0.075 
2019     
Class A common     
High$25.63 $26.39 $28.91 $25.09 $28.91 
Low20.00 22.03 23.50 20.74 20.00 
Class B common     
High24.68 25.49 29.43 23.46 29.43 
Low20.91 25.49 23.59 20.66 20.66 
Dividends0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.30 
 
Holders 

The number of holders of record of our Class A and Class B common stock were approximately 8,700 and 200, respectively, as of January 29, 2021. 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities 

None.
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Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 

During the fourth quarter of 2020, we reacquired shares of our Class A common stock as follows:
Period
Total Number
of Shares
(or Units)
Purchased
Average
Price Paid
per Share
(or Unit)
Total Number
of Shares (or
Units) Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Maximum Number
(or Approximate
Dollar Value) of
Shares (or Units)
That May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
    (in millions of dollars)
September 28, 2020 through November 1, 2020527 $17.89 — $— 
November 2, 2020 through November 29, 2020210 20.66 — — 
November 30, 2020 through January 3, 2021573 20.67 — — 
Total1,310 $19.55 —  
 
We may reacquire shares sold to cover employee tax withholdings due upon the vesting of restricted stock held by employees. Accordingly, 1,310 shares were reacquired during the Company’s fourth quarter.
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Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total return of our Class A common stock with that of the S&P SmallCap 600 Index and the S&P 1500 Human Resources and Employment Services Index for the five years ended December 31, 2020. The graph assumes an investment of $100 on December 31, 2015 and that all dividends were reinvested. 

COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Assumes Initial Investment of $100
December 31, 2015 – December 31, 2020
https://cdn.kscope.io/28306fb7504ef52c7583d65a70e1346d-kelya-20210103_g1.jpg

 201520162017201820192020
Kelly Services, Inc.$100.00 $144.09 $173.74 $132.06 $147.41 $134.81 
S&P SmallCap 600 Index$100.00 $126.56 $143.30 $131.15 $161.03 $179.20 
S&P 1500 Human Resources and Employment Services Index$100.00 $109.44 $139.30 $116.64 $143.22 $144.43 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
Executive Overview

The COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures have resulted in dramatic shifts in most aspects of the economy and how professional and private lives are conducted. While the pace of change was unprecedented and the resulting impacts are still being determined, our Noble Purpose, “We connect people to work in ways that enrich their lives,” will continue to guide our strategy and actions. Kelly remains committed to being a leading talent solutions provider among the talent with whom we choose to specialize and in the global markets in which we choose to compete. As we navigate the continued uncertainty, we will continue to demonstrate our expected behaviors and actions:

Employ a talent-first mentality

Relentlessly deliver for customers

Grow through discipline and focus

Deliver efficiency and effectiveness in everything we do

By aligning ourselves with our Noble Purpose and executing against these behaviors, we intend to weather the current situation and emerge as a more agile and focused organization, prepared to achieve new levels of growth and profitability as we further develop our portfolio of businesses.

The Talent Solutions Industry

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, labor markets were in the midst of change due to automation, secular shifts in labor supply and demand and skills gaps, and we expect the current economic situation to further accelerate that change. Global demographic trends are reshaping and redefining the way in which companies find and use talent and the COVID-19 pandemic is changing where and how companies expect work to be performed. In response, the talent solutions industry is adjusting how it sources, recruits, trains and places talent.

Our industry is evolving to meet businesses’ growing demand for specialized talent, whether delivered as a single individual or as part of a total workforce solution. Companies in our industry are using novel sourcing approaches—including gig platforms, independent contractors and other talent pools—to create customized workforce solutions that are flexible and responsive to the labor market.

In addition, today’s companies are elevating their commitment to talent, with the growing realization that meeting the changing needs and requirements of talent is essential to remain competitive. The ways in which people view, find and conduct work are undergoing fundamental shifts. And as the demand for skilled talent continues to climb, workers’ changing ideas about the integration of work into life are becoming more important. In this increasingly talent-driven market, a diverse set of workers, empowered by technology, is seeking to take greater control over their career trajectories and Kelly’s Talent Promise confirms our responsibility to workers in search of a better way to work.

Our Business

Kelly is a talent and global workforce solutions company serving customers of all sizes in a variety of industries. We offer innovative outsourcing and consulting services, as well as staffing on a temporary and direct-hire basis. At the beginning of the third quarter, we adopted our new Kelly Operating Model and realigned our business into five specialty business units which are also our reportable segments.

Professional & Industrial – delivers staffing, outcome-based and direct-hire services focused on office, professional, light industrial and contact center specialties in the U.S. and Canada, including our KellyConnect product

Science, Engineering & Technology – delivers staffing, outcome-based and direct-hire services focused on science and clinical research, engineering, information technology and telecommunications specialties predominately in the U.S. and Canada and includes our NextGen and Global Technology Associates subsidiaries

Education – delivers staffing, direct-hire and executive search services to the K-12, early childhood and higher education markets in the U.S., and includes several acquisitions: Teachers On Call, Insight Workforce Solutions and Greenwood/Asher & Associates
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Outsourcing & Consulting – delivers Master Service Provider ("MSP"), Recruitment Process Outsourcing ("RPO"), Business Process Outsourcing ("BPO") and Advisory Services to customers on a global basis

International – delivers staffing and direct-hire services in fifteen countries in Europe, as well as Mexico

In addition, we provide staffing services to customers in the Asia-Pacific region through PersolKelly Pte. Ltd., our joint venture with Persol Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Persol Holdings, a leading provider of HR solutions in Japan.

We earn revenues from customers that procure the services of our temporary employees on a time and materials basis, that use us to recruit permanent employees, and that rely on our talent advisory and outsourcing services. Our working capital requirements are primarily generated from temporary employee payroll and customer accounts receivable. The nature of our business is such that trade accounts receivable are our most significant asset. Average days sales outstanding varies within and outside the U.S. and was 64 days on a global basis as of the end of 2020 and 58 days as of the end of 2019. Since receipts from customers generally lag temporary employee payroll, working capital requirements increase substantially in periods of growth and decline in periods of economic contraction.

Our Perspective

Short Term

While far from certain, the impacts of COVID-19 on the global economy, the talent solutions industry, our customers and our talent have become more clear since the beginning of the pandemic. Year-over-year revenue declines have been substantial and recent trends have pointed to a gradual recovery in demand. In response to the crisis, in April 2020 we took a series of proactive actions. These actions were designed to reduce spending, minimize layoffs, and bolster the strength and flexibility of Kelly’s finances. These actions included:

a 10% pay cut for full-time salaried employees in the U.S., Puerto Rico and Canada, in addition to certain actions in Europe and Asia-Pacific;

substantially reduced CEO compensation and reduced compensation of 10% or more for senior leaders;

temporary furloughing and/or redeployment of some employees until business conditions improve;

suspension of the Company match to certain retirement accounts in the U.S. and Puerto Rico;

reduction of discretionary expenses and projects, including capital expenditures; and

a hiring freeze with the exception of critical revenue-generating positions.

The actions have generated substantial cost savings and have allowed us the time necessary to assess the variety of impacts the crisis has had on our business. These initial actions were intentionally broad in scope and as we have moved forward our actions are becoming more targeted to the areas of business where demand declines have been more significant and persistent. Actions such as the 10% pay cut, compensation adjustments for senior leaders and temporary furloughs were ended early in the fourth quarter of 2020. The suspension of the Company match to retirement accounts ended in January 2021 and others such as reductions in discretionary spending, capital expenditures and carefully managing staffing levels in non-revenue generating positions will continue. In addition, we benefited from CARES Act provisions allowing deferral of employer social security tax payments. In the fourth quarter of 2020, management reduced staffing levels to align with expected revenue levels and incurred restructuring charges of $4.4 million for severance and related benefits to be paid to impacted employees, and are included in our fourth quarter results.

Given the level of uncertainty surrounding the duration of the COVID-19 crisis, Kelly’s board also voted to suspend the quarterly dividend effective May, 2020 until conditions improve and continues to assess future actions with respect to our dividend policy.

The impact of the pandemic began in March 2020 with the limitations on public life in the U.S. and the European markets we serve and continued through the end of 2020 as the effect of the pandemic response slowed global economic activity. We do expect that there will continue to be a material decline in our year-over-year revenues through the first quarter of 2021 as
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demand for our services gradually recovers from the economic slowdown and the effects of customer and talent concerns related to operating safely during a pandemic. The impact on the revenues of each segment will vary given the differences in pandemic-related measures enacted in each geography, the customer industries served and the skill sets of the talent provided to our customers and their ability to work remotely. We currently expect a gradual return to pre-crisis levels of customer demand, however, the pace of such a return may be delayed by repeated cycles of increased economic activity and subsequent disruption caused by a resurgence in infection leading to additional containment measures. In the first quarter of 2021, while our cost reduction efforts are expected to reduce year-over-year expenses, they will not be enough to completely offset declines in revenue and gross profit. As a result, we expect our first quarter 2021 earnings to decline year-over-year. For the full year of 2021, we expect that our revenue will reflect a continued gradual improvement in demand and result in improvements in year-over-year gross profit and earnings from operations.

In addition, negative market reaction to the COVID-19 crisis in March 2020, including declines in our common stock price, caused our market capitalization to decline significantly. This triggered an interim goodwill impairment test and resulted in a $147.7 million non-cash goodwill impairment charge in the first quarter of 2020.

Moving Forward

While the severity of the economic impacts and their duration cannot be precisely predicted, we believe that the mid-term impacts on how people view, find and conduct work will continue to align with our strategic path.

As a result, we have continued to move forward with our specialization strategy, reinventing our operating model and reorganizing our business into five distinct reporting segments. These specialties represent areas where we see the most robust demand, the most promising growth opportunities, and where we believe we excel in attracting and placing talent. Our new segments also reflect our desire to shift our portfolio toward high-margin, higher-value specialties.

Kelly has done business in these specialties for many years, but our new operating model represents a new approach – one that brings together both staffing and outcome-based pieces of a specialty under a single specialty leader and aggregates assets to accelerate specialty growth and profitability. We believe this new specialty structure will give us greater advantages in the market, and we expect our disciplined focus to deliver profitable growth coming out of the crisis. In addition, we intend to invest in strategic, targeted M&A opportunities in our specialties, while optimizing our portfolio, as demonstrated by the acquisition of Greenwood/Asher & Associates in the fourth quarter of 2020 and the sale of our operations in Brazil during the third quarter of 2020.

Faced with market conditions that may temporarily delay our growth efforts, Kelly continues to focus on accelerating the execution of our strategic plan and making necessary investments to advance that strategy.

We are making strides in our digital transformation journey, building a technology foundation to sustain growth.

We are capturing a larger share of voice in the marketplace, using television spots and targeted social media campaigns to re-introduce Kelly to companies, highlight our specialty skills sets, and showcase our refreshed brand.

We are consistently striving to better understand and support our talent. And we have affirmed our commitment to that talent, recently introducing our five-point Talent Promise and reallocating resources to be solely focused on the temporary worker experience.

Using our unique position in the middle of the supply and demand equation, we are stepping up with a new platform called Equity@Work to break down long-standing, systemic barriers that make it difficult for many people to secure enriching work. This powerful extension of our Noble Purpose will help more people flow into Kelly’s talent pools, while also helping families, communities and economies thrive.

While the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in uncertainty in the economy and the labor markets that will affect our near-term financial performance, we have determined long-term measures to gauge our progress, including:

Revenue growth (both organic and inorganic)

Gross profit rate improvement

Conversion rate and EBITDA margin improvement
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Financial Measures

The constant currency (“CC”) change amounts in the following tables refer to the year-over-year percentage changes resulting from translating 2020 financial data into U.S. dollars using the same foreign currency exchange rates used to translate financial data for 2019. We believe that CC measurements are a useful measure, indicating the actual trends of our operations without distortion due to currency fluctuations. We use CC results when analyzing the performance of our segments and measuring our results against those of our competitors. Additionally, substantially all of our foreign subsidiaries derive revenues and incur cost of services and selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses within a single country and currency which, as a result, provides a natural hedge against transactional currency risks in connection with their normal business operations.

CC measures are non-GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) measures and are used to supplement measures in accordance with GAAP. Our non-GAAP measures may be calculated differently from those provided by other companies, limiting their usefulness for comparison purposes. Non-GAAP measures should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP.

Reported and CC percentage changes in the following tables were computed based on actual amounts in thousands of dollars.

Return on sales (earnings from operations divided by revenue from services) and conversion rate (earnings from operations divided by gross profit) in the following tables are ratios used to measure the Company’s operating efficiency.

Not meaningful ("NM") in the following tables is used in place of percentage changes where: the change is in excess of 500%, the change involves a comparison between earnings and loss amounts, or the comparison amount is zero.

Days sales outstanding (“DSO”) represents the number of days that sales remain unpaid for the period being reported. DSO is calculated by dividing average net sales per day (based on a rolling three-month period) into trade accounts receivable, net of allowances at the period end. Although secondary supplier revenues are recorded on a net basis (net of secondary supplier expense), secondary supplier revenue is included in the daily sales calculation in order to properly reflect the gross revenue amounts billed to the customer.
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Results of Operations

Total Company
(Dollars in millions)

2020 vs. 20192019 vs. 2018
 2020
(53 Weeks)
2019
(52 Weeks)
Change20192018Change
Revenue from services$4,516.0 $5,355.6 (15.7)%$5,355.6 $5,513.9 (2.9)%
Gross profit827.6 968.4 (14.5)968.4 972.2 (0.4)
SG&A expenses excluding restructuring charges792.8 877.6 (9.7)877.6 884.8 (0.8)
Restructuring charges12.8 5.5 131.5 5.5 — NM
Total SG&A expenses805.6 883.1 (8.8)883.1 884.8 (0.2)
Goodwill impairment charge147.7 — NM— — NM
Gain on sale of assets32.1 12.3 161.6 12.3 — NM
Asset impairment charge— 15.8 NM15.8 — NM
Earnings (loss) from operations(93.6)81.8 NM81.8 87.4 (6.5)
Gain (loss) on investment in Persol Holdings(16.6)35.8 NM35.8 (96.2)NM
Other income (expense), net3.4 (1.2)369.5 (1.2)(0.6)(86.9)
Earnings (loss) before taxes and equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliate(106.8)116.4 NM116.4 (9.4)NM
Income tax expense (benefit)(34.0)0.4 NM0.4 (27.1)101.3 
Equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliate0.8 (3.6)NM(3.6)5.2 NM
Net earnings (loss)$(72.0)$112.4 NM$112.4 $22.9 390.2 
 
Gross profit rate$18.3 %$18.1 %0.2 pts.$18.1 %$17.6 %0.5 pts.
Conversion rate(11.3)8.4 (19.7)8.4 9.0 (0.6)
 
2020 vs. 2019

Revenue from services for 2020 declined in all segments, reflecting the impact of COVID-19, and resulting in a decline in demand for both our staffing and permanent placement services across a broad range of industries and geographies. Revenue from staffing services declined 20% compared to 2019. Permanent placement revenue, which is included in revenue from services, decreased 34% year-over-year as the impact of economic uncertainty depressed full-time hiring in all operating segments. These declines were partially offset by a 9% increase in outcome-based services as demand from customers utilizing these services increased during the year. The 2020 fiscal year included a 53rd week. This fiscal leap year occurs every five or six years and is necessary to align the fiscal and calendar periods. The 53rd week added approximately 1% to 2020 reported and CC revenue.

Gross profit declined as a result of lower revenue volume, partially offset by an increase in the gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 20 basis points in comparison to 2019. With the exception of Education and International, the gross profit rate increased in all other operating segments, primarily reflecting improved product mix and lower employee-related costs. The gross profit rate for Education declined primarily as a result of increased pricing pressures. International's gross profit rate was negatively impacted by the decrease in permanent placement revenue. The total Company 2020 gross profit rate includes approximately 20 basis points related to COVID-19 government subsidies.

Total SG&A expenses decreased 8.8% in comparison to 2019. This decrease was due primarily to lower administrative salaries and performance-based compensation, including short-term cost reductions implemented to further align costs with revenue volume trends. Included in total SG&A expenses are restructuring charges of $12.8 million in 2020. Actions were taken in the first quarter of 2020 to position the Company to adopt the new operating model and to align the U.S. branch network facilities footprint with a more technology-enabled service delivery methodology. Actions were taken in the fourth quarter of 2020 to
26


align costs with expected revenue levels. Restructuring charges of $5.5 million in 2019 represent severance costs primarily related to position eliminations within Professional & Industrial staffing operations.

During 2020, the negative reaction to the pandemic by the global equity markets also resulted in a decline in the Company's common stock price. This triggered an interim goodwill impairment test, resulting in a $147.7 million goodwill impairment charge in the first quarter of 2020.

Gain on sale of assets of $32.1 million represents the excess of the proceeds over the cost of the headquarters properties sold in the first quarter of 2020. The main headquarters building was subsequently leased back to the Company during the first quarter of 2020. Gain on sale of assets in 2019 of $12.3 million primarily represents the excess of the proceeds over the cost upon the sale of an unused parcel of land located near the Company headquarters. Asset impairment charge of $15.8 million in 2019 represents the write-off of previously capitalized costs associated with a new U.S. front and middle office technology development project which management determined would not be completed but replaced by an enhanced and expanded use of an existing technology platform.

The loss from operations for 2020 of $93.6 million reflects a decline from the $81.8 million of earnings from operations in the prior year. Earnings from operations declined as a result of the goodwill impairment charge and lower gross profit as a result of the impact of COVID-19 on demand, partially offset by lower expenses due to cost reduction efforts and higher gain on sale of assets.

Gain (loss) on investment in Persol Holdings represents the gain or loss resulting from changes in the market price of our investment in the common stock of Persol Holdings. The gains or losses fluctuate based on the quoted market price of the Persol Holdings common stock at period end.

Income tax benefit was $34.0 million and expense was $0.4 million for 2020 and 2019, respectively. The 2020 income tax benefited from lower pretax earnings and includes the impairment of goodwill, a decline in the fair value of the Company's investment in Persol Holdings, and a tax loss on the sale of our Brazil operations. These benefits were offset by lower work opportunity credits. The 2019 tax expense benefited from releasing a valuation allowance in the United Kingdom. The work opportunity credit has been extended through 2025 as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021.

Our tax expense is affected by recurring items, such as the amount of pretax income and its mix by jurisdiction, U.S. work opportunity credits and the change in cash surrender value of tax exempt investments in life insurance policies. It is also affected by discrete items that may occur in any given period but are not consistent from period to period, such as tax law changes, changes in judgment regarding the realizability of deferred tax assets, the tax effects of stock compensation, and changes in the fair value of the Company’s investment in Persol Holdings, which are treated as discrete since they cannot be estimated. The impairment of goodwill in the first quarter of 2020 and the recording of deferred taxes on the Brazil outside basis differences in the second quarter of 2020 were treated as discrete items.

The net loss for 2020 of $72.0 million, a decrease from net earnings of $112.4 million in 2019, was due primarily to lower earnings from operations due to the goodwill impairment charge taken in the first quarter of 2020, combined with increased losses of Persol Holdings common stock, partially offset by the impact of an income tax benefit in comparison to income tax expense in 2019.

2019 vs. 2018

Total Company revenue from services for 2019 declined 2.9% in comparison to 2018. As noted in the following discussions, revenue decreases in Professional & Industrial and International were partially offset by increases in Science, Engineering & Technology, Education and Outsourcing & Consulting revenue. On a total Company basis, revenue from staffing services declined 6% compared to 2019, primarily due to the disruption resulting from the restructure of the U.S. branch-based staffing operations in the first quarter of 2019 and slower achievement of the related benefits. Additionally, permanent placement revenue, which is included in revenue from services, decreased 13% year-over-year. These declines were partially offset by a 30% increase in revenue from outcome-based services as demand increased from both new and existing customers. Revenue from services for 2019 includes the results of NextGen and GTA acquisitions, which added approximately 250 basis points to the total revenue growth rate.

The gross profit rate increased by 50 basis points from the prior year. As noted in the following discussions, increases in the gross profit rate for Professional & Industrial and Science, Engineering & Technology were partially offset by decreases in the gross profit rate for Education and Outsourcing & Consulting. The improved gross profit rate resulted from improved specialty mix in Professional & Industrial and Science, Engineering & Technology, partially offset by pricing pressure in Education. The
27


NextGen and GTA acquisitions drove a portion of the improved product mix and accounted for approximately 30 basis points of the gross profit rate growth.

Total SG&A expenses decreased 0.2% on a reported basis, due primarily to the effect of currency exchange rates. On a CC basis, SG&A expenses increased 0.7% due primarily to the addition of SG&A expenses from the NextGen and GTA acquisitions, partially offset by cost reduction efforts in Professional & Industrial and Outsourcing & Consulting. Also included in SG&A expenses for 2019 are restructuring charges of $5.5 million, related primarily to the U.S. branch-based staffing operations.

Gain on sale of assets primarily represents the excess of the proceeds over the cost of an unused parcel of land located near the Company headquarters sold during the second quarter of 2019. Asset impairment charge represents the write-off of previously capitalized costs associated with a new U.S. front and middle office technology development project which management determined would not be completed but replaced by an enhanced and expanded use of an existing technology platform.

Earnings from operations for 2019 of $81.8 million reflects a decline from the $87.4 million of earnings from operations in 2018. Our earnings from operations declined as a result of the asset impairment charge and lower gross profit, partially offset by the gain on sale of assets and lower expenses due to cost reduction efforts.

Gain (loss) on investment in Persol Holdings represents the gain or loss resulting from changes in the market price of our investment in the common stock of Persol Holdings. The gains or losses fluctuate based on the quoted market price of the Persol Holdings common stock at period end.

Income tax expense was $0.4 million for 2019 and benefit was $27.1 million for 2018. The increase in tax expense for 2019 was driven by gains on the Company's investment in Persol Holdings, compared to losses in 2018 and by a decline in work opportunity credits. This was partially offset by improved returns on tax exempt income on life insurance policies, and by higher net valuation allowance releases.

Net earnings for 2019 was $112.4 million, compared to net earnings of $22.9 million for 2018. The increase was primarily due to the impact of the gain on investment in Persol Holding of $35.8 million in 2019, compared to a loss on investment in Persol Holdings of $96.2 million in 2018.


28


Operating Results By Segment
(Dollars in millions)

2020 vs. 20192019 vs. 2018
 2020
(53 Weeks)
2019
(52 Weeks)
% Change20192018% Change
Dollars in millions
Revenue From Services:
Professional & Industrial$1,858.4 $2,213.4 (16.0)%$2,213.4 $2,430.9 (8.9)%
Science, Engineering & Technology1,019.1 1,131.8 (9.9)1,131.8 1,002.6 12.9 
Education286.9 450.7 (36.3)450.7 428.5 5.2 
Outsourcing & Consulting363.5 377.7 (3.8)377.7 377.1 0.1 
International988.6 1,182.5 (16.4)1,182.5 1,275.2 (7.3)
Less: Intersegment revenue(0.5)(0.5)(16.6)(0.5)(0.4)42.8 
Consolidated Total$4,516.0 $5,355.6 (15.7)%$5,355.6 $5,513.9 (2.9)%

2020 vs. 2019

Professional & Industrial revenue from services decreased due primarily to decreases in our hours volume in our staffing product which was impacted by COVID-19. These decreases were partially offset by increased revenue in our outcome-based products due to program expansions. The 53rd week added approximately 1% to 2020 reported revenue from services in Professional & Industrial.

Science, Engineering & Technology revenue from services decreased due to lower hours volume in our staffing product across most specialties due to the continued impact of COVID-19, with the exception of our government staffing business, which has seen increased demand for life sciences support. The 53rd week added approximately 1% to 2020 reported revenue from services in Science, Engineering & Technology.

Education revenue from services decreased due to the impact of COVID-19. Temporary school closures, delayed starts and use of virtual or hybrid instructional delivery reduced the demand. These decreases were partially offset by the revenues from the first quarter 2020 acquisition of Insight. The 53rd week added less than 1% to 2020 reported revenue from services in Education.

Outsourcing & Consulting revenue from services decreased due primarily to decreases in our PPO, MSP and RPO products due in part to COVID-19 demand declines, as well as lower demand from customers in the oil and gas industry. The 53rd week added approximately 2% to 2020 reported revenue from services in Outsourcing & Consulting.

International revenue from services decreased 16.4% on a reported basis and 15.6% on a CC basis. The decline was primarily due to a decrease in hours volume as COVID-19 disruptions continued across operations in all countries, in particular France, Portugal and the U.K. These decreases were partially offset by increased revenue in Russia, due to higher average bill rates. The 53rd week added approximately 1% to 2020 reported and CC revenue from services in International.

2019 vs. 2018

Professional & Industrial revenue from services decreased as a result of lower staffing revenues. This decrease was due to the disruption resulting from the restructure of the U.S. branch-based staffing in the first quarter of 2019 and slower achievement of the related benefits. The reduction in staffing revenue was partially offset by increases in our KellyConnect and outcome-based services revenues as a result of program expansions and new customer contracts.

Science, Engineering & Technology revenue from services increased due to higher staffing services revenue as a result of the acquisitions of Global Technology Associates and NextGen in the first quarter of 2019. Revenues also increased in our outcome-based services due to both adding new customers and existing customer program expansions.

Education revenue from services increased as a result of continued sales growth from new contracts with additional school districts coupled with year-over-year revenue increases in existing school districts.

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Outsourcing & Consulting revenue from services was flat year over year. Revenue increases in our MSP product were offset by decreases in our PPO and RPO products.

International revenue decreased 7.3% on a reported basis and 3.4% on a CC basis. The decline was primarily due to a decrease in hours volume reflecting softening market conditions in Europe, particularly France and Germany. These decreases were partially offset by increased revenue in Russia, due to higher hours volume.




30


Operating Results By Segment (continued)
(Dollars in millions)
2020 vs. 20192019 vs. 2018
 2020
(53 Weeks)
2019
(52 Weeks)
Change20192018Change
Dollars in millions
Gross Profit:
Professional & Industrial$330.2 $388.4 (15.0)%$388.4 $419.3 (7.4)%
Science, Engineering & Technology209.4 226.2 (7.5)226.2 185.6 21.9 
Education42.2 72.0 (41.3)72.0 70.7 1.9 
Outsourcing & Consulting119.8 122.3 (2.0)122.3 124.2 (1.6)
International126.0 159.5 (21.0)159.5 172.4 (7.5)
Consolidated Total$827.6 $968.4 (14.5)%$968.4 $972.2  (0.4)%
 
Gross Profit Rate: 
Professional & Industrial17.8%17.5%0.3 pts.17.5%17.3%0.2 pts.
Science, Engineering & Technology20.520.00.5 20.018.51.5 
Education14.716.0(1.3)16.016.5(0.5)
Outsourcing & Consulting33.032.40.6 32.432.9(0.5)
International12.713.5(0.8)13.513.5— 
Consolidated Total18.3%18.1%0.2 pts.18.1%17.6%0.5 pts.

2020 vs. 2019

Gross profit for the Professional & Industrial segment declined as the result of lower revenue volume, partially offset by an improved gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 30 basis points due to lower employee-related costs coupled with improved product mix, as a greater proportion of the segment revenue came from outcome-based services with higher margins.

The Science, Engineering & Technology gross profit declined as lower revenue volume was partially offset by a higher gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 50 basis points due to lower employee-related costs, partially offset by specialty and customer mix.

Gross profit for the Education segment declined as a result of lower revenue volume, combined with a lower gross profit rate. The Education gross profit rate decreased 130 basis points due to increased pricing pressures, partially offset by lower employee-related costs.

The Outsourcing & Consulting gross profit declined on lower revenue volume, partially offset by an improved gross profit rate. The Outsourcing & Consulting gross profit rate increased 60 basis points due to improved customer mix in the RPO product, coupled with lower employee-related costs in the PPO product.

International gross profit declined as a result of lower revenue volume and a decline in the gross profit rate. The International gross profit rate decreased primarily due to lower permanent placement revenue.

2019 vs. 2018

Gross profit for the Professional & Industrial segment declined as the result of lower revenue volume, partially offset by an improved gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 20 basis points due to customer and specialty mix.

The Science, Engineering & Technology gross profit increased as the result of higher revenue volume from the GTA and NextGen acquisitions mentioned previously, combined with a higher gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 150 basis points due primarily to the impact of these acquisitions coupled with improved specialty mix.

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Gross profit for the Education segment increased as a result of higher revenue volume, partially offset by a lower gross profit rate. The Education gross profit rate decreased 50 basis points due to pricing pressures.

The Outsourcing & Consulting gross profit decreased as a result of a decline in the gross profit rate. The Outsourcing & Consulting gross profit rate decreased 50 basis points due primarily to the reduction in our gross profit rate in our RPO product as a result of customer mix within that product.

International gross profit declined as a result of lower revenue volume and negative currency effects. The International gross profit rate for 2019 was flat against 2018.
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Operating Results By Segment (continued)
(Dollars in millions)

2020 vs. 20192019 vs. 2018
2020
(53 Weeks)
2019
(52 Weeks)
% Change20192018% Change
Dollars in millions
SG&A Expenses:
Professional & Industrial$288.6 $326.0 (11.5)%$326.0 $338.4 (3.7)%
Science, Engineering & Technology134.4 146.7 (8.4)146.7 124.717.6 
Education51.2 56.2 (8.8)56.2 47.817.6 
Outsourcing & Consulting108.3 119.3 (9.2)119.3 131.2(9.0)
International134.9 140.8 (4.2)140.8 148.6(5.2)
Corporate expenses88.2 94.1 (6.3)94.1 94.10.1 
Consolidated Total$805.6 $883.1 (8.8)%$883.1 $338.4 (0.2)%
2020 vs. 20192019 vs. 2018
2020
(53 Weeks)
2019
(52 Weeks)
% Change20192018% Change
Dollars in millions
Restructuring Charges Included in SG&A Expenses:
Professional & Industrial$6.0 $5.1 16.8 %$5.1 $— NM%
Science, Engineering & Technology0.6 0.4 74.1 0.4 — NM
Education1.0 — NM— — NM
Outsourcing & Consulting0.3 — NM— — NM
International1.4 — NM— — NM
Corporate expenses3.5 — NM— — NM
Consolidated Total$12.8 $5.5 131.5 %$5.5 $— NM%

2020 vs. 2019

Total SG&A expenses in Professional & Industrial decreased due primarily to lower salaries and related costs due to cost management actions and initiatives taken to help mitigate the lower revenue volume as a result of the COVID-19 disruption. The decreased revenue volume also resulted in lower performance-based compensation. In addition, Professional & Industrial took restructuring actions in both 2020 and 2019, which reduced salaries and related costs and facilities expenses. Included in total SG&A expenses for 2020 and 2019 are the costs of those restructuring efforts of $6.0 million and $5.1 million, respectively, representing primarily employee severance costs.

Total SG&A expenses in Science, Engineering & Technology decreased due primarily to cost management actions and initiatives taken to help mitigate the lower revenue volume as a result of the COVID-19 disruption. The decreased revenue volume also resulted in lower performance-based compensation.

Total SG&A expenses in Education decreased due primarily to lower salaries and related costs resulting from the cost management actions and initiatives taken to help mitigate the lower revenue volume as a result of the COVID-19 disruption. The decreased revenue volume also resulted in lower performance-based compensation. These decreases were partially offset by the impact of the acquisition of Insight that took place in the first quarter of 2020.

Total SG&A expenses in Outsourcing & Consulting decreased due primarily to lower salaries and related expenses resulting from cost management actions and initiatives taken to help mitigate the lower revenue volume as a result of the COVID-19 disruption.
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Total SG&A expenses in International decreased 4.2% on a reported basis and 3.6% on a CC basis. Included in International SG&A expenses for 2020 is a $9.5 million non-cash charge related to a customer dispute in Mexico that resulted in an additional uncollectible accounts receivable charge. Excluding this charge, total SG&A expenses decreased 11.0% due primarily to lower salaries, driven by cost management to contend with the COVID-19 disruption, combined with lower incentive-based compensation.

Corporate expenses decreased as a result of lower performance-based compensation expense and lower professional fees, partially offset by restructuring charges incurred during 2020.

2019 vs. 2018

Total SG&A expenses in Professional & Industrial decreased due primarily to lower performance-based compensation as well as the lower cost base from the restructuring efforts in the first quarter of 2019 in the U.S. branch-based staffing operations. Included in the total SG&A expenses for 2019 are the costs of that restructuring effort of $5.1 million, which were primarily severance costs.

Total SG&A expenses in Science, Engineering & Technology increased due primarily to the impact of the acquisition of GTA and NextGen in the first quarter of 2019.

Total SG&A expenses in Education increased due primarily to increased salaries from additional headcount related to an updated infrastructure put in place to deliver services to customers in this business unit in anticipation of the then-expected revenue growth.

Total SG&A expenses in Outsourcing & Consulting decreased due primarily to lower salaries from reduced headcounts as we continued to streamline the service delivery and support infrastructure in the business unit.

Total SG&A expenses in International decreased 5.2% on a reported basis and 1.3% on a CC basis, due primarily to effective cost management to align to revenue trends.

Corporate expenses were flat year over year. Lower performance-based compensation expense was offset by higher depreciation expense related to recently completed information technology projects.
34


Operating Results By Segment (continued)
(Dollars in millions)

2020 vs. 20192019 vs. 2018
2020
(53 Weeks)
2019
(52 Weeks)
% Change20192018% Change
Dollars in millions
Earnings (Loss) from Operations:
Professional & Industrial$41.6 $62.4 (33.4)%$62.4 $80.9 (22.8)%
Science, Engineering & Technology75.0 79.5 (5.8)79.5 60.9 30.6 
Education(9.0)15.8 NM15.8 22.9 (31.0)
Outsourcing & Consulting11.5 3.0 291.3 3.0 (7.0)NM
International(8.9)18.7 NM18.7 23.8 (21.6)
Corporate(203.8)(97.6)(108.6)(97.6)(94.1)(3.8)
Consolidated Total$(93.6)$81.8 NM%$81.8 $87.4 (6.5)%

2020 vs. 2019

Professional & Industrial reported earnings of $41.6 million, a 33.4% decrease from 2019. The decrease in earnings was primarily due to the impact of COVID-19 on our staffing product, partially offset by increases in our outcome-based products and the cost management initiatives taken to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on our operations.

Science, Engineering & Technology reported earnings of $75.0 million, a 5.8% decrease from 2019. The decrease in earnings was primarily due to the impact of COVID-19 on demand for our services, partially offset by the cost management initiatives taken to mitigate its impact.

Education reported a loss of $9.0 million, compared to earnings of $15.8 million in 2019. The decrease is due to the impact of COVID-19 on our revenue, partially offset by the cost management initiatives taken to mitigate its impact.

Outsourcing & Consulting reported earnings of $11.5 million, an $8.5 million increase over 2019. The increase in earnings was primarily due to the impact of the cost management initiatives taken to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, partially offset by lower revenue volume due to the impact of COVID-19 and lower customer demand in the oil and gas industry.

International reported a loss of $8.9 million, compared to earnings of $18.7 million in 2019, largely driven by the impact of
COVID-19 on revenue and a charge related to a customer dispute in Mexico, partially offset by cost management initiatives.

Corporate loss from operations of $203.8 million for 2020 includes the goodwill impairment charge of $147.7 million and gain on sale of assets of $32.1 million.

2019 vs. 2018

Professional & Industrial reported earnings of $62.4 million, a 22.8% decrease from 2018. The decrease in earnings was primarily due to decreased revenue in 2019 in our staffing product, partially offset by the reduced expenses as a result of the restructuring efforts and lower performance-based compensation.
Science, Engineering & Technology reported earnings of $79.5 million, a 30.6% increase from 2018. The increase in earnings was primarily due to the impact on earnings from the acquisitions of GTA and NextGen, coupled with continued strong performance and growth in our outcome-based services business.

Education reported earnings of $15.8 million, a 31.0% decrease from 2018. The decrease is due primarily to the increased costs associated with building out the Education service delivery infrastructure in order to prepare for the then-expected future sustained revenue growth. The impact of these additional costs on earnings was partially offset by the additional revenue resulting from new customer contracts and year-over-year increases related to existing customers.

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Outsourcing & Consulting reported earnings of $3.0 million, compared to a loss of $7.0 million in 2018. The increase in earnings was primarily due to lower expenses as a result of actions to streamline operations.

International reported earnings of $18.7 million, a decrease of 21.6% from 2018. The decrease was due to lower revenue volume, reflecting softening market conditions primarily in Europe, partially offset by lower SG&A expenses due to effective cost management.
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Results of Operations
Financial Condition
 
Historically, we have financed our operations through cash generated by operating activities and access to credit markets. Our working capital requirements are primarily generated from temporary employee payroll, which is generally paid weekly or monthly, and customer accounts receivable, which is generally outstanding for longer periods. Since receipts from customers lag payroll paid to temporary employees, working capital requirements increase substantially in periods of growth. Conversely, when economic activity slows, working capital requirements may substantially decrease. This may result in an increase in our operating cash flows; however, any such increase would not be sustainable in the event that an economic downturn continued for an extended period. The impact of the current economic slow-down resulting from the COVID-19 crisis began in March 2020 and continued through the fourth quarter. Consistent with our historical results, the impact of the current economic conditions resulted in declines in working capital requirements, primarily trade accounts receivable, and increases in cash flows from operations as revenues slowed.

As highlighted in the consolidated statements of cash flows, our liquidity and available capital resources are impacted by four key components: cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, operating activities, investing activities and financing activities. 

Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash totaled $228.1 million at year-end 2020, compared to $31.0 million at year-end 2019. As further described below, during 2020, we generated $186.0 million of cash from operating activities, generated $9.8 million of cash from investing activities and used $8.1 million of cash for financing activities.

Operating Activities

In 2020, we generated $186.0 million of net cash from operating activities, as compared to generating $102.2 million in 2019 and generating $61.4 million in 2018. The change from 2019 to 2020 was primarily due to the deferral of $117.0 million of payroll tax payments, partially offset by the impact of higher global DSO, as discussed below. The change from 2018 to 2019 was primarily driven by working capital changes.

Trade accounts receivable totaled $1.3 billion at year-end 2020 and 2019. Global DSO for the fourth quarter was 64 days for 2020, compared to 58 days for 2019. The increase of six days was due to certain customers taking advantage of full payment terms, along with a shift in customer mix to larger customers with longer payment terms. The accounts receivable balances for a limited number of large customers increased during the fourth quarter of 2020 due to short-term, customer-driven administrative issues, which also contributed to the year-over-year increase in DSO.

Our working capital position (total current assets less total current liabilities) was $624.0 million at year-end 2020, an increase of $102.4 million from year-end 2019. Excluding additional cash, working capital declined $94.8 million from year-end 2019. The current ratio (total current assets divided by total current liabilities) was 1.7 at year-end 2020 and 1.6 at year-end 2019.

Investing Activities 

In 2020, we generated $9.8 million of net cash from investing activities, compared to using $94.3 million in 2019 and using $29.8 million in 2018. Included in cash generated from investing activities in 2020 is $55.5 million of proceeds representing the cash received, net of transaction expenses, for the sale of three headquarters properties as a part of a sale and leaseback transaction and $5.6 million received from a payment on the loans to PersolKelly Pte. Ltd. This was partially offset by cash used for the acquisitions of Insight in January 2020 and Greenwood/Asher in November 2020. Cash used for the acquisition of Insight totaled $36.4 million, net of the cash received and including working capital adjustments. Cash used for the acquisition of Greenwood/Asher totaled $2.8 million, net of the cash received and including working capital adjustments.

Included in cash used for investing activities in 2019 is $50.8 million for the acquisition of NextGen in January 2019, net of cash received, $35.6 million for the acquisition of GTA in January 2019, net of cash received, and $4.4 million for loans to PersolKelly Pte. Ltd. to fund working capital requirements. These uses of cash were partially offset by proceeds of $13.8 million primarily from the sale of unused land during the second quarter of 2019.

Capital expenditures totaled $15.5 million in 2020, $20.0 million in 2019 and $25.6 million in 2018. Capital expenditures in 2020 were primarily related to the Company's headquarters building improvements, IT infrastructure and technology programs. Capital expenditures in 2019 primarily related to the Company’s technology programs. Capital expenditures in 2018 primarily related to the Company's technology programs, IT infrastructure and headquarters building improvements.
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Financing Activities 

In 2020, we used $8.1 million of cash for financing activities, as compared to using $16.1 million in 2019 and using $26.5 million in 2018. Changes in net cash from financing activities were primarily related to dividend payments in 2020, 2019 and 2018. Dividends paid per common share were $0.075 in 2020 and $0.30 in 2019 and 2018. Payments of dividends are restricted by the financial covenants contained in our debt facilities. Details of this restriction are contained in the Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements. 
Changes in net cash from financing activities are also impacted by short-term borrowing activities. Debt totaled $0.3 million at year-end 2020 and was $1.9 million at year-end 2019. Debt-to-total capital (total debt reported in the consolidated balance sheet divided by total debt plus stockholders’ equity) is a common ratio to measure the relative capital structure and leverage of the Company. Our ratio of debt-to-total capital was 0.0% at year-end 2020 and 0.1% at year-end 2019. 

In 2020 and 2019, the net change in short-term borrowings was primarily due to payments on local lines of credit. In 2018, the net change in short-term borrowings was primarily due to payments on our revolving credit facility.

Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments 

Summarized below are our obligations and commitments to make future payments as of year-end 2020:
  Payment due by period
 Total
Less than
1 year
1-3 Years3-5 Years
More than
5 years
 (In millions of dollars)
Leases$111.1 $25.5 $33.0 $16.4 $36.2 
Short-term borrowings0.3 0.3 — — — 
Accrued workers’ compensation65.0 22.7 19.5 8.5 14.3 
Accrued retirement benefits223.1 17.4 35.1 35.0 135.6 
Accrued payroll taxes117.0 58.5 58.5 — — 
Other liabilities10.6 1.9 3.4 2.9 2.4 
Uncertain income tax positions0.6 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 
Purchase obligations 36.7 16.1 13.9 6.7 — 
Total$564.4 $142.5 $163.6 $69.6 $188.7 
 
Purchase obligations above represent unconditional commitments relating primarily to technology services and online tools which we expect to utilize generally within the next two fiscal years, in the ordinary course of business. We have no material, unrecorded commitments, losses, contingencies or guarantees associated with any related parties or unconsolidated entities.

Liquidity 

We expect to meet our ongoing short-term and long-term cash requirements principally through cash generated from operations, available cash and equivalents, securitization of customer receivables and committed unused credit facilities. Additional funding sources could include asset-based lending or additional bank facilities. To meet expected future cash requirements related to our nonqualified retirement plan, we may utilize proceeds from Company-owned life insurance policies. During 2020, cash generated from operations will continue to be supplemented by recent enactment of laws providing COVID-19 relief, most notably the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act which allows for the deferral of payments of the Company's U.S. social security taxes. Such deferrals are required to be repaid in 2021 and 2022.

We utilize intercompany loans, dividends, capital contributions and redemptions to effectively manage our cash on a global basis. We periodically review our foreign subsidiaries’ cash balances and projected cash needs. As part of those reviews, we may identify cash that we feel should be repatriated to optimize the Company’s overall capital structure. As of the 2020 year end, these reviews have not resulted in any specific plans to repatriate a majority of our international cash balances. We expect much of our international cash will be needed to fund working capital growth in our local operations as working capital needs, primarily trade accounts receivable, increase during periods of growth. A cash pooling arrangement (the “Cash Pool”) is available to fund general corporate needs internationally. The Cash Pool is a set of cash accounts maintained with a single bank
38


that must, as a whole, maintain at least a zero balance; individual accounts may be positive or negative. This allows countries with excess cash to invest and countries with cash needs to utilize the excess cash.

At year-end 2020, we had $200.0 million of available capacity on our $200.0 million revolving credit facility and $97.0 million of available capacity on our $150.0 million securitization facility. The securitization facility carried no short-term borrowings and $53.0 million of standby letters of credit related to workers’ compensation. Together, the revolving credit and securitization facilities provide the Company with committed funding capacity that may be used for general corporate purposes subject to financial covenants and restrictions. While we believe these facilities will cover our working capital needs over the short term, if economic conditions or operating results change significantly from our current expectations, we may need to seek additional sources of funds. Throughout 2020 and as of the 2020 year end, we met the debt covenants related to our revolving credit facility and securitization facility.

At year-end 2020, we also had additional unsecured, uncommitted short-term credit facilities totaling $9.6 million, under which we had $0.3 million of borrowings. Details of our debt facilities as of the 2020 year end are contained in the Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.

We have historically managed our cash and debt very closely to optimize our capital structure. As our cash balances build, we tend to pay down debt as appropriate. Conversely, when working capital needs grow, we tend to use corporate cash and cash available in the Cash Pool first, and then access our borrowing facilities. We believe that we may utilize a portion of our existing cash balances to fund working capital requirements over the next several quarters if demand for our services continues to increase and to pay 50% of deferred payroll tax balances which are due in the fourth quarter of 2021.

We monitor the credit ratings of our major banking partners on a regular basis and have regular discussions with them. Based on our reviews and communications, we believe the risk of one or more of our banks not being able to honor commitments is insignificant. We also review the ratings and holdings of our money market funds and other investment vehicles regularly to ensure high credit quality and access to our invested cash.

Critical Accounting Estimates 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. In this process, it is necessary for us to make certain assumptions and related estimates affecting the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and the attached notes. Actual results can differ from assumed and estimated amounts. 

Critical accounting estimates are those that we believe require the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Judgments and uncertainties affecting the application of those estimates may result in materially different amounts being reported under different conditions or using different assumptions. We consider the following estimates to be most critical in understanding the judgments involved in preparing our consolidated financial statements. 

Workers’ Compensation

In the U.S., we have a combination of insurance and self-insurance contracts under which we effectively bear the first $1.0 million of risk per single accident. There is no aggregate limitation on our per-accident exposure under these insurance and self-insurance programs. We establish accruals for workers’ compensation utilizing actuarial methods to estimate the undiscounted future cash payments that will be made to satisfy the claims, including an allowance for incurred-but-not-reported claims. We retain an independent consulting actuary to establish ultimate loss forecasts for the current and prior accident years of our insurance and self-insurance programs. The consulting actuary establishes loss development factors, based on our historical claims experience as well as industry experience, and applies those factors to current claims information to derive an estimate of our ultimate claims liability. In preparing the estimates, the consulting actuary may consider factors such as the nature, frequency and severity of the claims; reserving practices of our third party claims administrators; performance of our medical cost management and return to work programs; changes in our territory and business line mix; and current legal, economic and regulatory factors such as industry estimates of medical cost trends. Where appropriate, multiple generally accepted actuarial techniques are applied and tested in the course of preparing the loss forecast. We use the ultimate loss forecasts, as developed by the consulting actuary, to establish total expected program costs for each accident year by adding our estimates of non-loss costs such as claims handling fees and excess insurance premiums. When claims exceed the applicable loss limit or self-insured retention and realization of recovery of the claim from existing insurance policies is deemed probable, we record a receivable from the insurance company for the excess amount.
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We evaluate the accrual quarterly and make adjustments as needed. The ultimate cost of these claims may be greater than or less than the established accrual. While we believe that the recorded amounts are reasonable, there can be no assurance that changes to our estimates will not occur due to limitations inherent in the estimation process. In the event we determine that a smaller or larger accrual is appropriate, we would record a credit or a charge to cost of services in the period in which we made such a determination. The accrual for workers’ compensation, net of related receivables which are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and other assets in the consolidated balance sheet, was $54.6 million and $59.5 million at year-end 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Business Combinations

We account for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting, in which the purchase price is allocated for assets acquired and liabilities assumed and recorded at the estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Management is required to make significant assumptions and estimates in determining the fair value of the assets acquired, particularly intangible assets. Purchased intangible assets are primarily comprised of acquired trade names and customer relationships that are recorded at fair value at the date of acquisition. We utilize third-party valuation specialists to assist us in the determination of the fair value of the intangibles. The fair value of trade name intangibles is determined using the relief-from-royalty method, which relies on the use of estimates and assumptions about projected revenue growth and discount rates. The fair value of customer relationship intangibles is determined using the multi-period excess earnings method, which relies on the use of estimates and assumptions about projected revenue growth, customer attrition, and discount rates. Determining the useful lives of intangible assets also requires judgment and are inherently uncertain. There is a measurement period of up to one year in which to finalize the fair value determinations and preliminary fair value estimates may be revised if new information is obtained during this period.

Income Taxes 

Income tax expense is based on expected income and statutory tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Judgment is required in determining our income tax expense. We establish accruals for uncertain tax positions under generally accepted accounting principles, which require that a position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return be recognized in the consolidated financial statements when it is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of more than fifty percent) the position would be sustained upon examination by tax authorities who have full knowledge of all relevant information. A recognized tax position is then measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement.

Our effective tax rate includes the impact of accruals and changes to accruals that we consider appropriate, as well as related interest and penalties. A number of years may lapse before a particular matter, for which we have or have not established an accrual, is audited and finally resolved. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of resolution of any particular tax matter, we believe that our accruals are appropriate under generally accepted accounting principles. Favorable or unfavorable adjustments of the accrual for any particular issue would be recognized as an increase or decrease to our income tax expense in the period of a change in facts and circumstances. Our current tax accruals are presented in income and other taxes in the consolidated balance sheet and long-term tax accruals are presented in other long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet.

Tax laws require items to be included in the tax return at different times than the items are reflected in the consolidated financial statements. As a result, the income tax expense reflected in our consolidated financial statements is different than the liability reported in our tax return. Some of these differences are permanent, which are not deductible or taxable on our tax return, and some are temporary differences, which give rise to deferred tax assets and liabilities. We establish valuation allowances for our deferred tax assets when the amount of expected future taxable income is not likely to support the use of the deduction or credit. Our net deferred tax asset is recorded using currently enacted tax laws, and may need to be adjusted in the event tax laws change. 

The U.S. work opportunity credit is allowed for wages earned by employees in certain targeted groups. The actual amount of creditable wages in a particular period is estimated, since the credit is only available once an employee reaches a minimum employment period and the employee’s inclusion in a targeted group is certified by the applicable state. As these events often occur after the period the wages are earned, judgment is required in determining the amount of work opportunity credits accrued for in each period. We evaluate the accrual regularly throughout the year and make adjustments as needed.


40


Equity Method Investment

We account for our investment in PersolKelly Pte. Ltd. under the equity method of accounting on a one-quarter lag. We review our equity method investment for indicators of impairment on a quarterly basis or whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying amount may be other-than-temporarily impaired. An impairment assessment requires the exercise of judgment related to financial trends, forecasts, relevant events, as well as any operating, economic, legal or regulatory changes that may have an impact on the investment. There were no indicators of an other-than-temporary impairment in 2020 or 2019. As of year-end 2020 and 2019, the equity method investment was $118.5 million and $117.2 million, respectively. See the Investment in PersolKelly Pte. Ltd. footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.

Goodwill 

We test goodwill for impairment annually and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. Generally accepted accounting principles require that goodwill be tested for impairment at a reporting unit level. For segments with a goodwill balance, we have determined that our reporting units are the same as our operating and reportable segments based on our organizational structure.

We may first use a qualitative assessment for the annual impairment test if we have determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value for one or more reporting units is greater than their carrying value. In conducting the qualitative assessment, we assess the totality of relevant events and circumstances that affect the fair value or carrying value of the reporting unit. Such events and circumstances may include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, overall financial performance, entity-specific events and events affecting a reporting unit.

If we elect to forgo the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit, goodwill is tested for impairment by comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value. If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the net assets assigned to a reporting unit, goodwill is not considered impaired and no further testing is required. If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to a reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value of a reporting unit, goodwill is deemed impaired and is written down to the extent of the difference.

During the first quarter of 2020, negative market reaction to the COVID-19 crisis, including declines in our common stock price, caused our market capitalization to decline significantly compared to the fourth quarter of 2019, causing a triggering event. Therefore, we performed an interim step one quantitative test for our reporting units with goodwill and determined that the estimated fair values of both reporting units no longer exceeded their carrying values. Based on the result of our interim goodwill impairment test as of the first quarter of 2020, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $147.7 million to write off the entire goodwill balance.

To derive the estimated fair value of reporting units, we primarily relied on an income approach, which was validated through reconciliation to observable market capitalization data. Under the income approach, estimated fair value is determined based on estimated future cash flows discounted by an estimated market participant weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects the overall level of inherent risk of the reporting unit being measured. Estimated future cash flows are based on our internal projection model and reflects management’s outlook for the reporting units. Assumptions and estimates about future cash flows and discount rates are complex and often subjective. They can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends, and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy and our internal forecasts. Our analysis used significant assumptions by reporting unit, including: expected future revenue and expense growth rates, profit margins, discount rate, forecasted capital expenditures and working capital.

In the fourth quarter of 2020, the Company elected to perform a qualitative analysis (a "step zero" test) to determine whether a further quantitative assessment was necessary for the reporting unit with goodwill. The step zero test included making judgments and assessments to determine whether any events or circumstances have occurred that makes it more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. As a result of this qualitative assessment, a step one quantitative analysis was not deemed necessary and the goodwill was not impaired.

We completed our annual impairment test for all reporting units with goodwill in the fourth quarter for the fiscal year ended 2019 and determined that goodwill was not impaired. In 2019, we performed a step one quantitative assessment for the Americas Staffing and GTS reporting units.

At year-end 2020 and 2019, total goodwill amounted to $3.5 million and $127.8 million, respectively. See the Goodwill and Intangible Assets footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for more information.
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Litigation 

Kelly is subject to legal proceedings, investigations and claims arising out of the normal course of business. Kelly routinely assesses the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes to these matters, as well as ranges of probable losses. A determination of the amount of the accruals required, if any, for these contingencies is made after analysis of each known issue. Development of the analysis includes consideration of many factors including: potential exposure, the status of proceedings, negotiations, discussions with our outside counsel and results of similar litigation. The required accruals may change in the future due to new developments in each matter. For further discussion, see the Contingencies footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements. At year-end 2020 and 2019, the gross accrual for litigation costs amounted to $1.4 million and $9.9 million, respectively, which are included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities and in accrued workers’ compensation and other claims in the consolidated balance sheet.

NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS 

See New Accounting Pronouncements footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this report for a description of new accounting pronouncements. 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained herein and in our investor conference call related to these results are “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the applicable securities laws and regulations. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions and are subject to a number of significant risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements include statements which are predictive in nature, which depend upon or refer to future events or conditions, or which include words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” or variations or negatives thereof or by similar or comparable words or phrases. In addition, any statements concerning future financial performance (including future revenues, earnings or growth rates), ongoing business strategies or prospects, and possible future actions by us that may be provided by management, including oral statements or other written materials released to the public, are also forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and projections about future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about our Company and economic and market factors in the countries in which we do business, among other things. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and we have no specific intention to update these statements.

Actual events and results may differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in forward-looking statements due to a number of factors. The principal important risk factors that could cause our actual performance and future events and actions to differ materially from such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, changing market and economic conditions, the recent novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, competitive market pressures including pricing and technology introductions and disruptions, disruption in the labor market and weakened demand for human capital resulting from technological advances, competition law risks, the impact of changes in laws and regulations (including federal, state and international tax laws), unexpected changes in claim trends on workers’ compensation, unemployment, disability and medical benefit plans, or the risk of additional tax liabilities in excess of our estimates, our ability to achieve our business strategy, our ability to successfully develop new service offerings, material changes in demand from or loss of large corporate customers as well as changes in their buying practices, risks particular to doing business with government or government contractors, the risk of damage to our brand, our exposure to risks associated with services outside traditional staffing, including business process outsourcing, services of licensed professionals and services connecting talent to independent work, our increasing dependency on third parties for the execution of critical functions, our ability to effectively implement and manage our information technology strategy, the risks associated with past and future acquisitions, including risk of related impairment of goodwill and intangible assets, exposure to risks associated with investments in equity affiliates including PersolKelly Pte. Ltd., risks associated with conducting business in foreign countries, including foreign currency fluctuations, the exposure to potential market and currency exchange risks relating to our investment in Persol Holdings, risks associated with violations of anti-corruption, trade protection and other laws and regulations, availability of qualified full-time employees, availability of temporary workers with appropriate skills required by customers, liabilities for employment-related claims and losses, including class action lawsuits and collective actions, our ability to sustain critical business applications through our key data centers, risks arising from failure to preserve the privacy of information entrusted to us or to meet our obligations under global privacy laws, the risk of cyberattacks or other breaches of network or information technology security, our ability to realize value from our tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards, our ability to maintain specified financial covenants in our bank facilities to continue to access credit markets, and other risks, uncertainties and factors discussed in this report and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results may differ materially from any forward-looking statements contained herein, and we undertake no duty to update any forward-looking statement to conform the statement to actual results or changes in the Company’s expectations. Certain risk factors are discussed more fully under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK. 
We are exposed to foreign currency risk primarily related to our foreign subsidiaries.  Exchange rates impact the U.S. dollar value of our reported earnings, our investments in and held by subsidiaries, local currency denominated borrowings and intercompany transactions with and between subsidiaries.  Our foreign subsidiaries primarily derive revenues and incur expenses within a single country and currency which, as a result, provide a natural hedge against currency risks in connection with normal business operations.  Accordingly, changes in foreign currency rates vs. the U.S. dollar, euro or Swiss franc generally do not impact local cash flows.  Intercompany transactions which create transactional foreign currency risk include services, royalties, loans, contributions and distributions.

In addition, we are exposed to interest rate risks through our use of the multi-currency line of credit and other borrowings. A hypothetical fluctuation of 10% of market interest rates would not have had a material impact on 2020 earnings. 

We are exposed to market and currency risks on our investment in Persol Holdings, which may be material. The investment is stated at fair value and is marked to market through net earnings. Foreign currency fluctuations on this yen-denominated investment are reflected as a component of other comprehensive income. See Fair Value Measurements footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further discussion.

We are exposed to market risk as a result of our obligation to pay benefits under our nonqualified deferred compensation plan and our related investments in company-owned variable universal life insurance policies. The obligation to employees increases and decreases based on movements in the equity and debt markets. The investments in mutual funds, as part of the company-owned variable universal life insurance policies, are designed to mitigate, but not eliminate, this risk with offsetting gains and losses. 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA. 

The financial statements and supplementary data required by this Item are set forth in the accompanying index on page 50 of this filing and are presented in pages 51-100.
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ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE. 

None. 

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES. 

Conclusion Regarding the Effectiveness of Disclosure Controls and Procedures 

Based on their evaluation as of the end of the period covered by this report, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) are effective at a reasonable assurance level. 

Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting 

Management’s report on internal control over financial reporting is presented preceding the consolidated financial statements on page 51 of this report. 

Attestation Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm 

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021, as stated in their report which appears herein. 

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting 

There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our fourth fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.  

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION.

None.
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PART III

Information required by Part III with respect to Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance (Item 10), Executive Compensation (Item 11), Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters (Item 12), Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence (Item 13) and Principal Accounting Fees and Services (Item 14), except as set forth under the titles “Executive Officers of the Registrant,” which is included on pages 45-46, and “Code of Business Conduct and Ethics,” which is included on page 47, (Item 10), and except as set forth under the title “Equity Compensation Plan Information,” which is included on pages 47-48, (Item 12), is to be included in a definitive proxy statement filed not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year and the proxy statement, when filed, is incorporated in this report by reference.

ITEM 10. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT.

The following individuals serve as executive officers of the Company as of January 3, 2021:

Name/OfficeAge
Served as an
Officer Since
Business Experience
During Last 5 Years
Peter W. Quigley
President and
  Chief Executive Officer
592004Served as officer of the Company.
Olivier G. Thirot
Executive Vice President
  and Chief Financial Officer
592008Served as officer of the Company.
Peter M. Boland
Senior Vice President
  Chief Marketing Officer
562018
January 2018 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.

January 2012 - June 2017
SVP Brand Marketing - Charles Schwab
& Co., San Francisco, CA
James H. Bradley
Senior Vice President
  Chief Administrative Officer
561996Served as officer of the Company.
Tammy L. Browning
Senior Vice President
  President, KellyOCG
472018
October 2018 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.

October 2010 - April 2018
SVP Global Operations - Yoh
Timothy L. Dupree
Senior Vice President
  President, Kelly Professional &
  Industrial
442014Served as officer of the Company.
Dinette Koolhaas
Senior Vice President
  President, Kelly International
512008Served as officer of the Company.






45


ITEM 10. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT (continued)

Name/OfficeAge
Served as an
Officer Since
Business Experience
During Last 5 Years
Daniel Hugo Malan
Senior Vice President
  President, Kelly Science,
  Engineering & Technology
512020
March 2020 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.

December 2019 - February 2020
Managing Partner - Talent Capital Advisors

August 2018 - November 2019
Chief Operating Officer - Employbridge

December 2016 - July 2018
President, Commercial Business -
Employbridge

November 2014 - November 2016
EVP & President - North America Staffing,
CDI
Nicola M. Soares
Senior Vice President
President, Kelly Education
522011Served as officer of the Company.
Vanessa P. Williams
Senior Vice President
  General Counsel
  Assistant Secretary
492020
October 2020 - Present
  Served as officer of the Company.

February 2020 - September 2020
  SVP, Division General Counsel-
  Transportation and Third Party
  Risk Management and Compliance -
  IHS Markit

December 2016 - February 2020
  VP, Division General Counsel -
  Transportation - IHS Markit

February 2014 - December 2016
  VP, Chief Legal Counsel & Global Privacy
  Officer - IHS Markit
Laura S. Lockhart
Vice President, Corporate Controller
  and Chief Accounting Officer
512008Served as officer of the Company.

46


CODE OF BUSINESS CONDUCT AND ETHICS.

We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that applies to our directors, officers and employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer or controller or persons performing similar functions. The Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is included as Exhibit 14 in the Index to Exhibits on page 101. We have posted our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics on our website at www.kellyservices.com. We intend to post any changes in or waivers from our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics applicable to any of these officers on our website.

ITEM 12. SECURITIES AUTHORIZED FOR ISSUANCE UNDER EQUITY COMPENSATION PLANS.

Equity Compensation Plan Information 

The following table shows the number of shares of our Class A common stock that may be issued upon the exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights, the weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights, and the number of securities remaining available for future issuance under our equity compensation plans as of the fiscal year end for 2020.
 Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rightsWeighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rightsNumber of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in the first column)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders - Evergreen provision (1), (2)
— $— — 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders - Fixed Share provision (1), (3)
— — 3,313,249 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders (4)
— — — 
Total— $— 3,313,249 
(1)The equity compensation plan approved by our stockholders is our Equity Incentive Plan.

(2)The Evergreen provision applied to shares granted prior to May 10, 2017, and the Equity Incentive Plan provided that the maximum number of shares available for grants, including restricted stock, was 15 percent of the outstanding Class A common stock, adjusted for plan activity over the preceding five years. The Company has no plans to issue additional shares under the Evergreen provision that was in effect prior to May 10, 2017.

The number of shares to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights under the Evergreen provision excludes: 24,550 shares of restricted stock; zero shares of financial measure performance shares that have been earned but not yet vested, zero shares of total shareholder return performance awards, and 3,632 shares of single financial measure performance awards.

(3)The Fixed Share provision applies to shares granted on and after May 10, 2017, and the amended Equity Incentive Plan provides that the maximum number of shares available for grants is 4,700,000.

The number of shares to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights under the Fixed Share provision excludes: 256,310 shares of restricted stock; performance shares that have been earned but not yet vested totaling zero of financial measure performance awards, zero total shareholder return performance awards, and 136,226 single financial measure performance awards; and performance shares granted to employees and not yet earned or
47


vested totaling 264,160 shares of financial measure performance awards, calculated using an assumed maximum award performance level of 200%, at January 3, 2021.

(4)The Non-Employee Directors Deferred Compensation Plan is an equity compensation plan that has not been approved by our stockholders. This plan provides non-employee directors with the opportunity to defer all or a portion of the fees they receive. Participants may elect to have director fees that are paid in either cash or common stock, deferred into the plan. Participants choose from a list of investment funds as determined by the Company for their deferrals of cash. Deferrals of common stock must remain in common stock. Amounts deferred under the plan are subject to applicable tax withholding. The plan is intended to be a non-qualified deferred compensation arrangement in compliance with Section 409A of the Code. Shares acquired by participants in this plan will be issued from the share reserve stated in the Equity Incentive Plan.

48


PART IV

ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.

(a)The following documents are filed as part of this report:

(i)Financial statements:

Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Consolidated Statements of Earnings for the three fiscal years ended January 3, 2021

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three fiscal years ended January 3, 2021

Consolidated Balance Sheets at January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the three fiscal years ended January 3, 2021

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three fiscal years ended January 3, 2021

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

(ii)Financial Statement Schedule -

For the three fiscal years ended January 3, 2021:

Schedule II - Valuation Reserves

All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or notes thereto.

(iii)The Exhibits are listed in the Index to Exhibits included beginning at page 101, which is incorporated herein by reference.

(b)The Index to Exhibits and required Exhibits are included following the Financial Statement Schedule beginning at page 101 of this filing.

(c)None.

ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY.

None.

49


KELLY SERVICES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES 

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND
SUPPLEMENTAL SCHEDULE
 
Page Reference
in Report on
Form 10-K
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

50


Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting 

The management of Kelly Services, Inc. (the “Company”), is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as a process designed by, or under the supervision of, the Company’s principal executive and principal financial officers and effected by the Company’s board of directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and includes those policies and procedures that:

Pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company;

Provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company;

Provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may change.

The Company’s management assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021. In making this assessment, the Company’s management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013). 

Based on our assessment, management determined that, as of January 3, 2021, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective based on those criteria.

The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears on pages 52-54.
51


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Kelly Services, Inc.

Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Kelly Services, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, and the related consolidated statements of earnings, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the years ended January 3, 2021, December 29, 2019, and December 30, 2018, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years ended January 3, 2021, December 29, 2019, and December 30, 2018, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Changes in Accounting Principles

As discussed in Note 26 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company changed the manner in which it accounts for leases in 2019 and the manner in which it accounts for revenue from contracts with customers and investments in equity securities in 2018.

Basis for Opinions

The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the
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company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Workers’ Compensation

As described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, in the U.S., the Company has a combination of insurance and self-insurance contracts under which they effectively bear the first $1.0 million of risk per single accident. Management establishes the accrual for workers’ compensation claims utilizing actuarial methods to estimate the undiscounted future cash payments that will be made to satisfy the claims, including an allowance for incurred-but-not-reported claims. As of January 3, 2021, the accrual for workers’ compensation, net of related receivables, is $54.6 million. Management retains an independent consulting actuary to establish loss development factors, based on historical claims experience as well as industry experience, and applies those factors to current claims information to derive an estimate of the ultimate claims liability. In preparing the estimates, the consulting actuary considers a number of assumptions and multiple generally accepted actuarial methods in the course of preparing the loss forecast for claims. When claims exceed the applicable loss limit or self-insured retention and realization of recovery of the claim from existing insurance policies is deemed probable, management records a receivable from the insurance company for the excess amount. Management evaluates the accrual quarterly throughout the year and makes adjustments as needed.

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to workers’ compensation is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when determining the actuarial methods and the significant assumptions to use in establishing the accrual for workers’ compensation claims; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s actuarial methods and significant assumptions related to the loss development factors; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management’s accrual for workers’ compensation claims, including controls over the actuarial methods and development of significant assumptions. These procedures also included, among others (i) the involvement of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in developing an independent estimate for the accrual for workers’ compensation claims and (ii) comparing the independent estimate to management’s estimate to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s estimate. Developing the independent estimate involved (i) testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data provided by management; (ii) evaluating management’s actuarial methods and significant assumptions related to the loss development factors; and (iii) independently developing the loss development factors and actuarial methods used.

Goodwill Impairment Assessment - Americas Staffing and Global Talent Solutions (“GTS”) Reporting Units

As described in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s consolidated goodwill balance was $3.5 million as of January 3, 2021. Management performs its annual goodwill impairment testing in the fourth quarter each year and regularly assesses whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. During the first quarter of 2020, negative market reaction to the COVID-19 crisis, including declines in the Company’s common stock price, caused the market capitalization to decline significantly compared to the fourth quarter of 2019, causing a triggering event. Therefore, management performed an interim step one quantitative test for reporting units with goodwill, Americas Staffing and GTS, and determined that the estimated fair values of both reporting units no longer exceeded their carrying values. Based on the result of the interim goodwill impairment test in the first quarter of 2020, management recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $147.7 million to write off goodwill for both reporting units. Management determined the fair value of each reporting unit using the income approach, which was validated through reconciliation to observable market
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capitalization data. Management’s analysis used significant assumptions including expected future revenue and expense growth rates, profit margins, discount rate, forecasted capital expenditures and working capital.

The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the goodwill impairment assessment for the Americas Staffing and GTS reporting units is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when developing the fair value measurement of the reporting units; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s significant assumptions related to expected future revenue growth rates, profit margins and the discount rate; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.

Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management’s goodwill impairment assessment, including controls over the valuation of the Americas Staffing and GTS reporting units. These procedures also included, among others (i) testing management’s process for developing the fair value measurement of the reporting units; (ii) evaluating the appropriateness of the income approach, including testing management’s reconciliation to observable market capitalization data; (iii) testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data used in the model; and (iv) evaluating the significant assumptions used by management related to the expected future revenue growth rates, profit margins and the discount rate. Evaluating management’s assumptions related to the expected future revenue growth rates and profit margins involved evaluating whether the assumptions used by management were reasonable considering (i) the current and past performance of the reporting units; (ii) the consistency with external market and industry data; and (iii) whether these assumptions were consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in the evaluation of management’s income approach and the discount rate assumption.


/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Detroit, Michigan
February 18, 2021

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1960.
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KELLY SERVICES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS

 202020192018
 (In millions of dollars except per share items)
Revenue from services$4,516.0 $5,355.6 $5,513.9 
Cost of services3,688.4 4,387.2 4,541.7 
Gross profit827.6