SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 1, 2023
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _________ to __________
Commission file number 0-1088
| ||KELLY SERVICES, INC.|| |
| ||(Exact Name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)|| |
|Delaware || ||38-1510762 |
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) || ||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
999 West Big Beaver Road, Troy, Michigan 48084
|(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)|
|(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each
|Name of each exchange |
on which registered
|Class A Common||KELYA||NASDAQ Global Market |
|Class B Common||KELYB||NASDAQ Global Market |
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||☒||Accelerated filer||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer (Do not check if a smaller |
|☐||Smaller reporting company||☐|
|Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $668.3 million.
Registrant had 33,831,598 shares of Class A and 3,342,146 of Class B common stock, par value $1.00, outstanding as of February 5, 2023.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
The proxy statement of the registrant with respect to its 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders is incorporated by reference in Part III.
Unless the context otherwise requires, throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K the words “Kelly,” “Kelly Services,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Kelly Services, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS.
History and Development of Business
Founded by William Russell Kelly in 1946, Kelly Services® pioneered an industry that connects people to work in ways that enrich their lives. Our inception helped usher in and embolden a workforce of women, opening doors and creating completely new opportunities. Over the next 76 years, as work evolved, Kelly equipped people with skills to master new technologies as they emerged: launching the first-of-its-kind online learning center for scientists; creating testing and training packages for breakthrough office programs; and launching skill builders that aligned with new light industrial protocols. With each advance, Kelly met the needs of the marketplace; empowering our people to reach their personal goals and enabling our clients to access skilled talent to move their organizations forward.
As work has evolved so has Kelly's range of solutions, growing over the years to reflect the changing needs of employers and the desires and lifestyles of talent. We have progressed from a traditional office staffing business to a creative, insightful and agile talent company delivering expertise in a portfolio of specialty services. In line with market demand, we are increasingly delivering a variety of outcome-based services in which we provide specialized talent and operational management of functions and departments on behalf of our clients.
We rank as one of the world’s largest scientific and clinical research staffing providers and place talent at various levels in engineering, IT and telecommunications specialties. We are also a leading education staffing provider in the U.S., placing talent across the full education spectrum from early childhood education to higher education. These services complement our expertise in professional office services, contact center and light industrial staffing. As work has evolved and talent management has become more complex, we have also developed innovative solutions to help many of the world’s largest employers plan for and manage their workforce through recruitment outsourcing, payroll processing, talent advisory, career transition and supplier management services.
Geographic Breadth of Services
Headquartered in the United States, Kelly provides workforce solutions to a diverse group of local, regional and global clients in the Americas, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region across a variety of industries.
In 2022, we assigned more than 300,000 temporary employees to a variety of customers around the globe.
Description of Business Segments
Kelly is a talent solutions company organized into five specialty businesses, which are also our reportable segments, serving clients of all sizes across a variety of industries. This structure enables us to focus on specialties with robust demand, promising growth opportunities and areas in which we excel at attracting and placing talent.
•Professional & Industrial – delivers staffing, outcome-based and permanent placement services focused on office, professional, light industrial and contact center specialties in the U.S. and Canada, including our KellyConnect and Skilled Professional Solutions products
•Science, Engineering & Technology ("SET") – delivers staffing, outcome-based and permanent placement services focused on science and clinical research, engineering, technology and telecommunications specialties predominantly in the U.S. and Canada and includes our Softworld, NextGen and Global Technology Associates subsidiaries
•Education – delivers staffing, permanent placement and executive search services across the full education spectrum from early childhood to higher education in the U.S. and includes Teachers On Call, Insight Workforce Solutions, Greenwood/Asher and Pediatric Therapeutic Services ("PTS")
•Outsourcing & Consulting Group ("Outsourcing & Consulting," "OCG") – delivers Managed Service Provider ("MSP"), Recruitment Process Outsourcing ("RPO"), Payroll Process Outsourcing ("PPO") and Talent Advisory Services to customers on a global basis and includes RocketPower
•International – delivers staffing, RPO and permanent placement services in 14 countries in Europe, as well as services in Mexico delivered in accordance with changes in labor market regulations
Financial information regarding our reportable segments is included in the Segment Disclosures footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
By connecting our clients with qualified talent in an ever-evolving world of work, Kelly has a positive impact on the people, clients and communities we serve. As a destination for top talent and a strategic business partner for our clients, we continue to adopt innovative business practices and forward-looking technologies that drive success in a dynamic market. With more than one-third of the world’s workforce now participating as independent workers, we help companies adopt strategies that recognize and utilize contingent labor, consultants and project-based work as enablers of their ongoing success.
We’re also using our position in the middle of the talent supply and demand equation to challenge outdated barriers that hold back far too many people from attaining meaningful work, supporting their families and contributing to the economy. Our Equity@Work initiative seeks to upend systemic barriers to employment and make the labor market more equitable and accessible for more people. While systemic change takes time, we continue to make progress with additional outreach, new alliances and partnerships and continued executive commitment.
We own numerous service marks that are registered with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the European Union Intellectual Property Office and numerous individual country trademark offices.
Seasonality and Economic Cycles
Our operating results have historically been affected by the cyclical response to both economic downturns and upswings. Customers tend to use our services to supplement their existing workforce and generally hire permanent employees when long-term demand is expected to increase. As a consequence, our revenue from services tends to increase when the economy grows. Conversely, our revenue from services decreases when the economy declines and customer demand for our services also declines. Our business also experiences seasonal fluctuations, particularly in our Education operating segment. Revenue in Education is generally lowest in the third quarter in line with schools’ summer break.
Our working capital requirements are primarily generated from employee payroll which is generally paid weekly or monthly and customer accounts receivable which is generally outstanding for longer periods, with days sales outstanding ("DSO") of 61 days as of January 1, 2023. Since receipts from customers lag payroll payments to temporary employees, working capital requirements increase and operating cash flows may decrease substantially in periods of growth. Conversely, when economic activity slows, working capital requirements may substantially decrease and operating cash flows increase. Such increases dissipate over time if the economic downturn continues for an extended period.
Kelly’s client portfolio spans employers of all sizes, ranging from local and mid-sized businesses to the Fortune 500. In 2022, an estimated 54% of total company revenue was attributed to our largest 100 customers. Our largest single customer accounted for approximately seven percent of total revenue in 2022.
Although we conduct business under various federal, state and local government contracts, no one contract represents more than three percent of total company revenue in 2022.
The worldwide workforce solutions industry is competitive and highly fragmented. In the United States, we compete with other firms that operate nationally and offer a breadth of service similar to ours, and with thousands of smaller regional or specialized companies that compete in varying degrees. Outside the United States, we face similar competition. In 2022, our largest competitors were Randstad, Adecco Group, ManpowerGroup Inc. and Allegis Group.
Key factors that influence our success are quality of service, price and breadth of service.
Quality of service is highly dependent on the availability of qualified talent, and our ability to promptly and effectively recruit, screen, retain and manage a pool of employees who match the skills required by our customers. We must balance competitive pricing pressures, which may intensify during an economic downturn, with the need to attract and retain a qualified workforce. Price competition in the staffing industry is intense, particularly for education, office clerical and light industrial personnel and pricing pressure from customers and competitors continues to be significant.
Companies may seek a single supplier to manage all of their demand for contingent talent. To provide the breadth of service required, clients may need us to manage staffing suppliers and independent workers on their behalf. Kelly seeks to address this requirement for our clients, enabling us to deliver talent wherever and whenever they need it around the world.
Kelly is committed to the highest standards of corporate citizenship. Given the worldwide reach of our workers, clients, suppliers and partners, we recognize the global impact of our business practices and the importance of public accountability. We continue to advocate on behalf of the global workforce, improve our workplaces, contribute to the communities we serve and ensure our actions are socially, ethically and environmentally responsible.
Our services are subject to a variety of complex federal and state laws and regulations in the countries where we operate. We continuously monitor legislation and regulatory changes for their potential effect on our business. We invest in technology and process improvements to implement required changes while minimizing the impact on our operating efficiency and effectiveness. Regulatory cost increases are passed through to our clients to the fullest extent possible. As a service business, we are not materially impacted by federal, state or local laws that regulate the discharge of materials into the environment.
We are a talent solutions company dedicated to connecting people to work in ways that enrich their lives, and our employees are critical to achieving this noble purpose. To succeed in our highly competitive and rapidly evolving market, we must attract and retain experienced internal employees, as well as talent we put to work for our customers. As part of these efforts, we strive to offer competitive total rewards programs, promote employee development, foster an inclusive and diverse environment and allow employees to give back to their communities and make a social impact.
We are committed to the health, safety and wellness of our employees and talent. The success of our business is fundamentally connected to the well-being of our people. Accordingly, we seek to implement policies and practices that align with applicable laws and regulations and are in the best interest of our employees, talent and the communities in which we operate.
As of January 1, 2023, we employed approximately 4,800 staff members in the United States and an additional 2,700 in our international locations. Kelly retention rates for high performing and high potential employees align with our comparable benchmark.
Compensation and Benefits. Kelly is committed to providing competitive, equitable and fiscally responsible total rewards programs to our employees. Our compensation programs are designed to attract, retain and reward talented individuals
with the skills necessary to achieve our strategic goals and create long-term value for our shareholders. We provide employees with competitive compensation opportunities, with strong pay-for-performance linkages that include a mix of base salary, short-term incentives and, in the case of our more senior employees, long-term equity awards. Our programs provide fair and competitive opportunities that align employee and stockholder interests. In addition to cash and equity compensation, we offer employees competitive benefits such as life and health (medical, dental and vision) insurance, paid time off, wellness benefits and defined contribution retirement plans. We review our compensation and benefits programs annually and respond to changes in market practice. For example, recent enhancements to our U.S. benefits program include additional time off for significant life events, a financial advisor program, support programs for certain chronic health conditions and introduction of a well-being app globally. In addition, pay and benefits programs for our international employees align with competitive local practices.
Inclusion and Diversity. Since 1947, our founder fought to increase women's access to work, and we’ve long been an outspoken advocate for the value temporary and independent workers bring to the workplace. We are committed to fostering an inclusive and diverse workforce. For example, most of Kelly's U.S. workforce is female, including a majority of director and above roles. Additionally, for a fifth consecutive year, we’ve achieved a 100% rating from the Human Rights Campaign Foundation’s Corporate Equality Index for LGBTQ+ equality in the workplace. We believe an inclusive environment with diverse teams creates a workplace that is conducive to producing more creative solutions, results in better, more innovative products and services, and presents Kelly as a workplace leader, aiding our ability to attract and retain high-performing talent. We are focused on fostering a culture of belonging, where everyone feels welcomed and respected and can thrive as we work together. Kelly promotes employee development and internal career mobility to enable our team to achieve their full potential and to ensure we have the evolving workforce capabilities that the future demands.
Community Involvement. We consider sustainability a guiding principle in strengthening the relationship with our global workforce, suppliers and customers. Through our programs and initiatives, we seek to improve the quality of life of our employees, their families and the communities in which they live and serve. Designed on the concept of social investment and nurturing shared values, our approach ensures the creation of future development capacities instead of aiding on isolated occasions. We support initiatives where our employees can actively engage in the causes they believe in that are also connected to our sustainability strategy. In 2022, we achieved over 7,800 hours of volunteering (for the U.S. and Canada), engaging over 1,000 employees. Through our Equity@Work efforts, we are living our commitment to ensure equitable access to work and growth by creating alliances with like-minded companies, policy groups and institutions to positively impact how companies hire, advance and help more people thrive.
For more information on our diversity and inclusion and community involvement initiatives, please see our Sustainability Report - Growing with Purpose, which is available at kellyservices.com.
In addition to our internal employees, Kelly recruits talent on behalf of our customers globally. In 2022, we placed more than 300,000 individuals in positions with our customers. Kelly remains the employer of record for our employees working at our customer locations. This means that we retain responsibility for all assignments (including ensuring appropriate health and safety protocols in conjunction with our customers), wages, benefits, workers’ compensation insurance, and the employers’ share of applicable payroll taxes as well as the administration of the employee's share of these taxes. We also offer our Kelly talent access to competitive health and benefit programs while they are working with us.
For information regarding sales, earnings from operations and long-lived assets by domestic and foreign operations, please refer to the information presented in the Segment Disclosures footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements, presented in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Access to Company Information
We electronically file our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The SEC maintains an Internet website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically.
We make available, free of charge, through our website, and by responding to requests addressed to our senior vice president of investor relations, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all
amendments to those reports. These reports are available as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our website address is: www.kellyservices.com. The information contained on our website, or on other websites linked to our website, is not part of this report.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.
Risks Related to Macroeconomic Conditions
Our business is significantly affected by fluctuations in general economic conditions.
Demand for staffing services is significantly affected by the general level of economic activity and employment in the United States and the other countries in which we operate. When economic activity increases, temporary employees are often added before full-time employees are hired. As economic activity slows, however, many companies reduce their use of temporary employees before laying off full-time employees. Customer responses to real or perceived economic conditions, including perceptions related to market conditions, labor supply and inflation, could negatively impact customer behavior. Significant swings in economic activity historically have had a disproportionate impact on staffing industry volumes. We may not fully benefit from times of increased economic activity should we experience shortages in the supply of temporary employees. We may also experience more competitive pricing pressure and slower customer payments during periods of economic downturn. A substantial portion of our revenues and earnings are generated by our business operations in the United States. Any significant economic downturn in the United States or certain other countries in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business has been adversely impacted by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and could be impacted by future outbreaks.
The emergence of new strain(s) of COVID-19 that are more deadly, contagious, or vaccine resistant, or a decline in the effectiveness of vaccines or treatment regimens could result in another economic downturn, a decline in demand for our services, or increased worker absenteeism. Likewise, the financial viability of third parties on which we rely to provide staffing services or manage critical business functions could also be impacted by further negative COVID-19 developments.
Our stock price may be subject to significant volatility and could suffer a decline in value.
The market price of our common stock may be subject to significant volatility. We believe that many factors, including several which are beyond our control, have a significant effect on the market price of our common stock. These include:
•actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results;
•announcements of new services by us or our competitors;
•announcements relating to strategic relationships, acquisitions or divestitures;
•changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;
•changes in general economic conditions;
•actual or anticipated changes in laws and government regulations;
•commencement of, or involvement in, litigation;
•any major change in our board or management;
•changes in industry trends or conditions; and
•sales of significant amounts of our common stock or other securities in the market.
In addition, the stock market in general, and the NASDAQ Global Market in particular, have experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of listed companies. These broad market and industry factors may seriously harm the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. A securities class action suit against us could result in substantial costs, potential liabilities and the diversion of our management’s attention and resources. Further, our operating results may be below the expectations of securities analysts or investors. In such event, the price of our common stock may decline.
Risks Related to our Industry Segment
We operate in a highly competitive industry with low barriers to entry and may be unable to compete successfully against existing or new competitors.
The worldwide staffing services market is highly competitive with limited barriers to entry. We compete in global, national, regional and local markets with full-service and specialized temporary staffing and consulting companies. Randstad, Adecco Group, ManpowerGroup Inc. and Allegis Group are considerably larger than we are and have more substantial marketing and financial resources. Additionally, the emergence of online staffing platforms or other forms of disintermediation may pose a
competitive threat to our services, which operate under a more traditional staffing business model. Price competition in the staffing industry is intense, particularly for the provision of office clerical, light industrial and education personnel. We expect that the level of competition will remain high, which could limit our ability to maintain or increase our market share or profitability.
The number of customers distributing their staffing service purchases among a broader group of competitors continues to increase which, in some cases, may make it more difficult for us to obtain new customers, or to retain or maintain our current share of business, with existing customers. We also face the risk that our current or prospective customers may decide to provide similar services internally. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter increased competition in the future.
Technological advances may significantly disrupt the labor market and weaken demand for human capital.
Our success is directly dependent on our customers’ demands for talent. As technology continues to evolve, more tasks currently performed by people may be replaced by automation, robotics, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other technological advances outside of our control. This trend poses a risk to the staffing industry, particularly in lower-skill job categories that may be more susceptible to such replacement. If we are unsuccessful in responding to this potential shift in customer demand due to advancing technology it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Competition rules arising from government legislation, litigation or regulatory activity may limit how we structure and market our services.
As a leading staffing and recruiting company, we are closely scrutinized by government agencies under U.S. and foreign competition laws. An increasing number of governments are regulating competition law activities, leading to increased scrutiny. Some jurisdictions also allow competitors or consumers to assert claims of anti-competitive conduct.
The European Commission and its various competition authorities have targeted industry trade associations in which we participate, resulting in the assessment of fines against our business in the past. Although we have safeguards in place to comply with competition laws, there can be no guarantee that such safeguards will be successful. Any government regulatory actions may result in fines and penalties or hamper our ability to provide the cost-effective benefits to consumers and businesses, reducing the attractiveness of our services and the revenues that come from them. New competition law actions could be initiated. The outcome of such actions, or steps taken to avoid them, could adversely affect us in a variety of ways, including:
•We may have to choose between withdrawing certain services from certain geographies to avoid fines or designing and developing alternative versions of those services to comply with government rulings, which may entail a delay in a service delivery.
•Adverse rulings may act as precedent in other competition law proceedings.
Our business is subject to extensive government regulation, which may restrict the types of employment services we are permitted to offer or result in additional or increased taxes, including payroll taxes or other costs that reduce our revenues and earnings.
The temporary employment industry is heavily regulated in many of the countries in which we operate. Changes in laws or government regulations may result in prohibition or restriction of certain types of employment services we are permitted to offer or the imposition of new or additional benefit, licensing or tax requirements that could reduce our revenues and earnings. In particular, we are subject to state unemployment taxes in the U.S., which typically increase during periods of increased levels of unemployment. We also receive benefits, such as the work opportunity income tax credit in the U.S., that regularly expire and may not be reinstated. There can be no assurance that we will be able to increase the fees charged to our customers in a timely manner and in a sufficient amount to fully cover increased costs as a result of any changes in laws or government regulations. Any future changes in laws or government regulations, or interpretations thereof, including additional laws and regulations enacted at a local level may make it more difficult or expensive for us to provide staffing services and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Unexpected changes in claim trends on our workers’ compensation, unemployment, disability and medical benefit plans may negatively impact our financial condition.
We self-insure, or otherwise bear financial responsibility for, a significant portion of expected losses under our workers’ compensation program, disability and medical benefits claims. Unexpected changes in claim trends, including the severity and frequency of claims, actuarial estimates and medical cost inflation, could result in costs that are significantly different than initially reported. If future claims-related liabilities increase due to unforeseen circumstances, or if we must make unfavorable adjustments to accruals for prior accident years, our costs could increase significantly. In addition, unemployment insurance costs are dependent on benefit claims experience from employees which may vary from current levels and result in increased costs. There can be no assurance that we will be able to increase the fees charged to our customers in a timely manner and in a sufficient amount to cover increased costs as a result of any changes in claims-related liabilities.
We may have additional tax liabilities that exceed our estimates.
We are subject to a multitude of federal, state, local, and foreign taxes in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Our tax expense could be materially impacted by changes in tax laws in these jurisdictions, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities or changes in the mix of income by country. The overall size of our workforce and visibility of our industry may make it more likely we become a target of government investigations, and we are regularly subject to audit by tax authorities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of audits and any related litigation could be materially different from our historical tax provisions and accruals. The results of an audit or litigation could materially harm our business.
Risks Related to Strategy and Execution
Our future performance depends on the Company’s effective execution of our business strategy.
The performance of the Company’s business is dependent on our ability to effectively execute our growth strategy. Our strategy includes targeted investments in select specialty areas, focusing on growth platforms and implementation of a cost-effective operating model to bridge our strategy to execution. If we are unsuccessful in executing our strategy, we may not achieve either our stated goal of revenue growth or the intended productivity improvements, which could negatively impact profitability. Even if effectively executed, our strategy may be insufficient considering changes in market conditions, technology, competitive pressures or other external factors.
If we fail to successfully develop new service offerings, we may be unable to retain and acquire customers, resulting in a decline in revenues.
The Company’s successful execution of our growth strategy requires that we match evolving customer expectations with evolving service offerings. The development of new service offerings requires accurate anticipation of customer needs and emerging technology and workforce trends. We must make long-term investments in our information technology infrastructure and commit resources to development efforts before knowing whether these investments will result in service offerings that achieve customer acceptance and generate the revenues required to provide desired returns. If we fail to accurately anticipate and meet our customers’ needs through the development of new service offerings or do not successfully deliver new service offerings, our competitive position could weaken, causing a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
A loss of major customers or a change in such customers’ buying behavior or economic strength could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We serve many large corporate customers through high volume service agreements. While we intend to maintain or increase our revenues and earnings from our major corporate customers, we are exposed to risks arising from the possible loss of major customer accounts. A change in labor strategy or the deterioration of the financial condition or business prospects of these customers could reduce their need for our services and result in a significant decrease in the revenues and earnings we derive from these customers. Such change could occur due to factors in our customers' control but also could occur due to economic, social, climate, or political factors outside of our customers' control. Our customers are also exposed to third-party risk through their use of vendors and suppliers which, in the event of a third-party incident at a customer, could result in a deterioration in their financial condition. Continuing merger and acquisition activity involving our large corporate customers could put existing business at risk or impose additional pricing pressures. Since receipts from customers generally lag payroll to temporary employees, the bankruptcy of a major customer could have a material adverse impact on our ability to meet our working capital requirements. The expansion of payment terms may extend our working capital requirements and reduce available capital for
investment. Additionally, most of our customer contracts can be terminated by the customer on short notice without penalty. This creates uncertainty with respect to the revenues and earnings we may recognize with respect to our customer contracts.
Our business with large customer accounts reflects a market-driven shift in buying behaviors in which reliance on a small number of staffing partners has shifted to reliance upon a network of talent providers. The movement from single-sourced to competitively sourced staffing contracts may also substantially reduce our future revenues from such customers. While Kelly has sought to address this trend, including providing MSP services within our OCG segment, we may not be selected or retained as the MSP by our large customers. This may result in a material decrease in the revenue we derive from providing staffing services to such customers. In addition, revenues may be materially impacted from our decision to exit customers due to pricing pressure or other business factors.
Our business with the federal government and government contractors presents additional risk considerations. We must comply with laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of federal government contracts. Failure to meet these obligations could result in civil penalties, fines, suspension of payments, reputational damage, disqualification from doing business with government agencies and other sanctions or adverse consequences. Government procurement practices may change in ways that impose additional costs or risks upon us or pose a competitive disadvantage. Our employees may be unable to obtain or retain the security clearances necessary to conduct business under certain contracts, or we could lose or be unable to secure or retain a necessary facility clearance. Government agencies may temporarily or permanently lose funding for awarded contracts, or there could be delays in the start-up of projects already awarded and funded.
We are at risk of damage to our brands, which are important to our success.
Our success depends, in part, on the value associated with our brands. Because we assign employees to work under the direction and supervision of our customer at work locations not under Kelly’s control, we are at risk of our employees engaging in unauthorized conduct that could harm our reputation. Our Education segment is particularly susceptible to this exposure. Any incident, act or omission that damages Kelly’s reputation could cause the loss of current and future customers, additional regulatory scrutiny and liability to third parties, which could negatively impact profitability.
As we increasingly offer services outside the realm of traditional staffing, including business process outsourcing and services intended to connect talent to independent work, we are exposed to additional risks which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our business strategy focuses on driving profitable growth in key specialty areas, including through business process outsourcing arrangements, where we provide operational management of our customers’ non-core functions or departments. This could expose us to certain risks unique to that business, including product liability or product recalls. As the nature of work changes, we deliver services that connect talent to independent work with our customers and expose the Company to risks of misclassifying workers, which could result in regulatory audits and penalties. Although we have internal vetting processes intended to control such risks, there is no assurance that these processes will be effective or that we will be able to identify these potential risks in a timely manner. Our specialties also include professional services where errors or omissions by employees or independent contractors can result in substantial injury or damages. We attempt to mitigate and transfer such risks through contractual arrangements with our customers and suppliers; however, these services may give rise to liability claims and litigation. While we maintain insurance in types and amounts we believe are appropriate for the contemplated risks, there is no assurance that such insurance coverage will remain available on reasonable terms or be sufficient in amount or scope.
We are increasingly dependent on third parties for the execution of critical functions.
We rely on third parties to support critical functions within our operations, including portions of our technology infrastructure, vendor management, customer relationship management, and applicant tracking systems. If we are unable to contract with third parties having the specialized skills needed to support our growth strategies or integrate their products and services with our business, or if they fail to meet our performance requirements, the results of operations could be adversely impacted. We also rely on supplier partnerships to deliver our services to customers in certain territories. If our suppliers fail to meet our standards and expectations or are unfavorably regarded by our customers, our ability to discontinue the relationship may be limited and could result in reputational damage, customer loss, and adversely affect our results of operations. The failure or inability to perform on the part of one or more of these critical suppliers or partners could cause significant disruptions and increased costs.
Our information technology strategy may not yield its intended results.
Our information technology strategy includes improvements to our applicant onboarding and tracking systems, order management, and improvements to financial processes such as billing and accounts payable through system consolidation and
upgrades. We do not use a single enterprise resource planning system, which limits our ability to react to evolving technology and customer expectations and increases the amount of investment and effort necessary to provide global service integration to our customers. Although the technology strategy is intended to increase productivity and operating efficiencies, these initiatives may not yield their intended results. Any delays in completing, or an inability to successfully complete, these technology initiatives or an inability to achieve the anticipated efficiencies could adversely affect our operations, liquidity and financial condition. Some of the initiatives are dependent on the products and services of third party vendors. If our vendors are unable to provide these services, or fail to meet our standards and expectations, we could experience business interruptions or data loss which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Past and future acquisitions may not be successful.
As a part of our growth strategy, we continue to monitor the market for acquisition targets to bolster our inorganic growth aspirations. Acquisitions involve a number of risks, including the diversion of management’s attention from its existing operations, the failure to retain key personnel or customers of an acquired business, the failure to realize anticipated benefits such as cost savings and revenue enhancements, potential substantial transaction costs associated with acquisitions, the assumption of unknown liabilities of the acquired business and the inability to successfully integrate the business into our operations. There can be no assurance that any past or future acquired businesses will generate anticipated revenues or earnings.
Further, acquisitions result in goodwill and intangible assets which have the risk of impairment if the future operating results and cash flows of such acquisitions are lower than our initial estimates. In the event that we determine that there is an impairment, we may be required to record a significant non-cash charge to earnings that could adversely affect our results of operations. In 2022, changes in market conditions related to demand in hiring in the high-tech industry and slowing growth in RPO more broadly, resulted in a goodwill impairment charge of $41.0 million.
Certain equity investments may expose us to additional risks and uncertainties.
We participate, or may participate in the future, in certain investments in equity affiliates, such as joint ventures or other investments with strategic partners, including PersolKelly Pte. Ltd. These investments or arrangements expose us to a number of risks, including the risk that the management of the investment or combined venture may not be able to fulfill their performance obligations under the management agreements or that the joint venture parties may be incapable of providing the required financial support. Additionally, improper, illegal or unethical actions by the investment or venture management could have a negative impact on the reputation of the investment or venture and our Company.
Risks Related to Operating a Global Enterprise
We conduct a significant portion of our operations outside of the United States and we are subject to risks relating to our international business activities, including fluctuations in currency exchange rates and numerous legal and regulatory requirements.
We conduct our business in major staffing markets throughout the world. Our operations outside the United States are subject to risks inherent in international business activities, including:
•fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
•restrictions or limitations on the transfer of funds;
•government intrusions including asset seizures, expropriations or de facto control;
•varying economic and geopolitical conditions;
•differences in cultures and business practices;
•differences in employment and tax laws and regulations;
•differences in accounting and reporting requirements;
•differences in labor and market conditions;
•compliance with trade sanctions;
•changing and, in some cases, complex or ambiguous laws and regulations; and
•litigation, investigations and claims.
Our operations outside the United States are reported in the applicable local currencies and then translated into U.S. dollars at the applicable currency exchange rates for inclusion in our consolidated financial statements. Exchange rates for currencies of these countries may fluctuate in relation to the U.S. dollar and these fluctuations may have an adverse or favorable effect on our operating results when translating foreign currencies into U.S. dollars.
Our international operations subject us to potential liability under anti-corruption, trade protection, and other laws and regulations.
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations (“Anti-Corruption Laws”) prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors, or agents. While we devote substantial resources to our global compliance programs and have implemented policies, training, and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments, our employees, vendors, or agents may violate our policies. Our failure to comply with Anti-Corruption Laws could result in significant fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Operations outside the U.S. may be affected by changes in trade protection laws, policies and measures, and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. As a result, we may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage.
Risks Related to Human Capital
We depend on our ability to attract, develop and retain qualified permanent full-time employees.
As we aim to expand the number of clients utilizing our higher margin specialty solutions in support of our growth strategy, we are highly reliant on individuals who possess specialized knowledge and skills to lead related specialty solutions and operations. Social, political and financial conditions can negatively impact the availability of qualified personnel. Competition for individuals with proven specialized knowledge and skills is intense, and demand for these individuals is expected to remain strong in the foreseeable future. Our success is dependent on our ability to attract, develop and retain these employees.
We depend on our ability to attract and retain qualified temporary personnel (employed directly by us or through third-party suppliers).
We depend on our ability to attract qualified temporary personnel who possess the skills and experience necessary to meet the staffing requirements of our customers. We must continually evaluate our base of available qualified personnel to keep pace with changing customer needs. Competition for individuals with proven professional skills is intense, and demand for these individuals is expected to remain strong for the foreseeable future. Low unemployment, as well as social, political and financial conditions can negatively impact the amount of qualified personnel available to meet the staffing requirements of our customers. There can be no assurance that qualified personnel will continue to be available in sufficient numbers and on terms of employment acceptable to us and our customers. Our success is substantially dependent on our ability to recruit and retain qualified temporary personnel.
We may be exposed to employment-related claims and losses, including class action lawsuits and collective actions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We employ and assign personnel in the workplaces of other businesses. The risks of these activities include possible claims relating to:
•discrimination and harassment;
•wrongful termination or retaliation;
•violations of employment rights related to employment screening or privacy issues;
•apportionment between us and our customer of legal obligations as an employer of temporary employees;
•classification of workers as employees or independent contractors;
•employment of unauthorized workers;
•violations of wage and hour requirements;
•entitlement to employee benefits, including health insurance and retroactive benefits;
•failure to comply with leave policy and other labor requirements; and
•errors and omissions by our temporary employees, particularly for the actions of professionals such as engineers, therapists, accountants, teachers and scientists.
We are also subject to potential risks relating to misuse of customer proprietary information, misappropriation of funds, death or injury to our employees, damage to customer facilities due to negligence of temporary employees, criminal activity and other similar occurrences. We may incur fines and other losses or negative publicity with respect to these risks. In addition, these occurrences may give rise to litigation, which could be time-consuming and expensive. In the U.S. and certain other countries in which we operate, new employment and labor laws and regulations have been proposed or adopted that may increase the potential exposure of employers to employment-related claims and litigation. In addition, such laws and regulations are arising
with increasing frequency at the state and local level in the U.S. and the resulting inconsistency in such laws and regulations results in additional complexity. There can be no assurance that the corporate policies and practices we have in place to help reduce our exposure to these risks will be effective or that we will not experience losses as a result of these risks. Although we maintain insurance in types and amounts we believe are appropriate in light of the aforementioned exposures, there can also be no assurance that such insurance policies will remain available on reasonable terms or be sufficient in amount or scope of coverage. Additionally, should we have a material inability to produce records as a consequence of litigation or a government investigation, the cost or consequences of such matters could become much greater.
Risks Related to Cyber Security and Data Privacy
Damage to our key data centers could affect our ability to sustain critical business applications.
Many business processes critical to our continued operation are hosted in outsourced facilities in America, Europe and Asia. Certain other processes are hosted at our corporate headquarters complex or occur in cloud-based computer environments. These critical processes include, but are not limited to, payroll, customer reporting, and order management. Although we have taken steps to protect all such instances by establishing robust data backup and disaster recovery capabilities, the loss of these data centers or access to the cloud-based environments could create a substantial risk of business interruption which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A failure to maintain the privacy of information entrusted to us could have significant adverse consequences.
In the normal course of business we control, process, or have access to personal information regarding our own employees or employment candidates, as well as that of many of our customers or managed suppliers. Information concerning these individuals may also reside in systems controlled by third parties for purposes such as employee benefits and payroll administration. The legal and regulatory environment concerning data privacy is becoming more complex and challenging, and the potential consequences of non-compliance have become more severe. The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, the California Consumer Privacy Act and similar laws impose additional compliance requirements related to the collection, use, processing, transfer, disclosure, and retention of personal information, which can increase operating costs and resources to accomplish. Any failure to abide by these regulations or to protect such personal information from inappropriate access or disclosure, whether through social engineering or by accident or other cause, could have severe consequences including fines, litigation, regulatory sanctions, reputational damage, and loss of customers or employees. Although we have a program designed to preserve the privacy rights of the personal data that we control or process, as well as personal data that we entrust to third parties, there can be no assurance that our program will meet all current and future regulatory requirements, anticipate all potential methods of unauthorized access, or prevent all inappropriate disclosures. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all such costs or consequences, and there can be no assurance that any insurance that we now maintain will remain available under acceptable terms.
Cyberattacks or other breaches of network or information technology security could have an adverse effect on our systems, services, reputation and financial results.
We rely upon multiple information technology systems and networks, some of which are web-based or managed by third parties, to process, transmit, and store electronic information and to manage or support a variety of critical business processes and activities. Our networks and applications are increasingly accessed from locations and by devices not within our physical control, and the specifics of our technology systems and networks may vary by geographic region. In the course of ordinary business, we may store or process proprietary or confidential information concerning our business and financial performance and current, past or prospective employees, customers, vendors and managed suppliers. The secure and consistent operation of these systems, networks and processes is critical to our business operations. Moreover, our temporary employees may be exposed to, or have access to, similar information in the course of their customer assignments. We routinely experience cyberattacks, which may include the use or attempted use of malware, ransomware, computer viruses, phishing, social engineering schemes and other means of attempted disruption or unauthorized access. Additionally, the rapid pace of change in information security and cyber security threats could result in a heightened threat level for us or companies in our industry with little notice. Our relationships with third parties, including suppliers we manage, customers, and vendors creates potential avenues for malicious actors to initiate a supply chain attack. Even in instances where we are not a target of a malicious actor, we could be exposed to risk due to our relationships and business processes with these third parties.
The actions we take to reduce the risk of impairments to our operations or systems and breaches of confidential or proprietary data may not be sufficient to prevent or repel future cyber events or other impairments of our networks or information technologies. An event involving the destruction, modification, accidental or unauthorized release, or theft of sensitive information from systems related to our business, or an attack that results in damage to or unavailability of our key technology
systems or those of critical vendors (e.g., ransomware), could result in damage to our reputation, fines, regulatory sanctions or interventions, contractual or financial liabilities, additional compliance and remediation costs, loss of employees or customers, loss of payment card network privileges, operational disruptions and other forms of costs, losses or reimbursements, any of which could materially adversely affect our operations or financial condition. Our cyber security and business continuity plans, and those of our third parties with whom we do business, may not be effective in anticipating, preventing and effectively responding to all potential cyber risk exposures. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all such costs or consequences, and there can be no assurance that any insurance that we now maintain will remain available under acceptable terms.
Risks Related to Our Capital Structure
Our controlling stockholder exercises voting control over our company and has the ability to elect or remove from office all of our directors.
The Terence E. Adderley Revocable Trust K (“Trust K”) which became irrevocable upon the death of Terence E. Adderley on October 9, 2018, is our controlling stockholder. In accordance with the provisions of Trust K, William U. Parfet, David M. Hempstead and Andrew H. Curoe were appointed as successor trustees of the trust. Mr. Parfet is the brother of Donald R. Parfet, the Chairman of the board of directors of the Company. The trustees, acting by majority vote, have sole investment and voting power over the shares of Class B common stock held by Trust K, which represent approximately 93.5% of the outstanding Class B shares. The voting rights of our Class B common stock are perpetual, and our Class B common stock is not subject to transfer restrictions or mandatory conversion obligations under our certificate of incorporation or bylaws.
Our Class B common stock is the only class of our common stock entitled to voting rights. The trustees of Trust K are therefore able to exercise voting control with respect to all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election or removal from office of all members of the Company’s board of directors.
We are not subject to certain of the listing standards that normally apply to companies whose shares are quoted on the NASDAQ Global Market.
Our Class A and Class B common stock are quoted on the NASDAQ Global Market. Under the listing standards of the NASDAQ Global Market, we are deemed to be a “controlled company” due to Trust K having voting power with respect to more than fifty percent of our outstanding voting stock. A controlled company is not required to have a majority of its board of directors comprised of independent directors. Director nominees are not required to be selected or recommended for the board’s selection by a majority of independent directors or a nominations committee comprised solely of independent directors, nor do the NASDAQ Global Market listing standards require a controlled company to certify the adoption of a formal written charter or board resolution, as applicable, addressing the nominations process. A controlled company is also exempt from NASDAQ Global Market’s requirements regarding the determination of officer compensation by a majority of independent directors or a compensation committee comprised solely of independent directors. A controlled company is required to have an audit committee composed of at least three directors who are independent as defined under the rules of both the SEC and the NASDAQ Global Market. The NASDAQ Global Market further requires that all members of the audit committee have the ability to read and understand fundamental financial statements and that at least one member of the audit committee possess financial sophistication. The independent directors must also meet at least twice a year in meetings at which only they are present.
We currently comply with the listing standards of the NASDAQ Global Market that do not apply to controlled companies. Our compliance is voluntary, however, and there can be no assurance that we will continue to comply with these standards in the future.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law may delay or prevent an acquisition of our Company.
Our restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could make it harder for a third party to acquire us without the consent of our board of directors. For example, if a potential acquirer were to make a hostile bid for us, the acquirer would not be able to call a special meeting of stockholders to remove our board of directors or act by written consent without a meeting. The acquirer would also be required to provide advance notice of its proposal to replace directors at any annual meeting and would not be able to cumulate votes at a meeting, which would require the acquirer to hold more shares to gain representation on the board of directors than if cumulative voting were permitted.
Our board of directors also has the ability to issue additional shares of common stock which could significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer. In addition, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law limits mergers and other business combination transactions involving 15 percent or greater stockholders of Delaware corporations unless certain board or stockholder approval requirements are satisfied. These provisions and other similar provisions make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us without negotiation.
Our board of directors could choose not to negotiate with an acquirer that it did not believe was in our strategic interests. If an acquirer is discouraged from offering to acquire us or prevented from successfully completing a hostile acquisition by these or other measures, our shareholders could lose the opportunity to sell their shares at a favorable price.
The holders of shares of our Class A common stock are not entitled to voting rights.
Under our certificate of incorporation, the holders of shares of our Class A common stock are not entitled to voting rights, except as otherwise required by Delaware law. As a result, Class A common stockholders do not have the right to vote for the election of directors or in connection with most other matters submitted for the vote of our stockholders, including mergers and certain other business combination transactions involving the Company.
We may not be able to realize value from, or otherwise preserve and utilize, our tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards.
Provisions in U.S. and foreign tax law could limit the use of tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards in the event of an ownership change. In general, an ownership change occurs under U.S. tax law if there is a change in the corporation’s equity ownership that exceeds 50% over a rolling three-year period. If we experience an ownership change, inclusive of our Class A and Class B common stock, our tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards generated prior to the ownership change may be subject to annual limitations that could reduce, eliminate or defer their utilization. Such limitation could materially impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to maintain specified financial covenants in our bank credit facilities, or credit market events beyond our control, could adversely restrict our financial and operating flexibility and subject us to other risks, including risk of loss of access to capital markets.
Our bank credit facilities contain covenants that require us to maintain specified financial ratios and satisfy other financial conditions. During 2022, we met all of the covenant requirements. Our ability to continue to meet these financial covenants, particularly with respect to interest coverage (see Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements), cannot be assured. If we default under this or any other of these requirements, the lenders could declare all outstanding borrowings, accrued interest and fees to be due and payable or significantly increase the cost of the facility. Additionally, our credit facilities contain cross-default provisions. In these circumstances, there can be no assurance that we would have sufficient liquidity to repay or refinance this indebtedness at favorable rates or at all. Events beyond our control could result in the failure of one or more of our banks, reducing our access to liquidity and potentially resulting in reduced financial and operating flexibility. If broader credit markets were to experience dislocation, our potential access to other funding sources would be limited.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES.
Our headquarters is a leased facility located in Troy, Michigan and is available to our corporate, subsidiary and divisional employees. We also conduct business operations in both the U.S. and international locations in additional leased facilities. Since 2020, the majority of our internal employees have also conducted business remotely as part of our flexible work policy.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
The Company is continuously engaged in litigation, threatened ligation, claims, audits or investigations arising in the ordinary course of its business, such as matters alleging employment discrimination, wage and hour violations, claims for indemnification or liability, violations of privacy rights, anti-competition regulations, commercial and contractual disputes, and tax related matters which could result in a material adverse outcome. We record accruals for loss contingencies when we believe it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. Such accruals are recorded in accounts payable and accrued liabilities and in accrued workers’ compensation and other claims in the consolidated balance sheet. The Company maintains insurance coverage which may cover certain claims. When claims exceed the applicable policy deductible and realization of recovery of the claim from existing insurance policies is deemed probable, the Company records receivables from the insurance company for the excess amount, which are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and other assets in the consolidated balance sheet.
While the outcome of these matters currently pending cannot be predicted with certainty, we believe that the resolution of any such proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
In January 2018, the Hungarian Competition Authority initiated proceedings against a local industry trade association and its members, due to alleged infringement of national competition regulations. The Authority announced its decision on December 18, 2020, levying a fine against the trade association with joint and several secondary liability placed on the 20 member companies. Our apportioned secondary liability as a member company is approximately $300,000. The matter is still pending. Certain member companies exercised their right to challenge the decision, which could impact the apportionment. The Company does not believe that resolution of this matter will have a material adverse effect upon the Company’s competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial position.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Market Information and Dividends
Our Class A and Class B common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbols “KELYA” and “KELYB,” respectively. The high and low selling prices for our Class A common stock and Class B common stock as quoted by the NASDAQ Global Market and the dividends paid on the common stock for each quarterly period in the last two fiscal years are reported in the table below. Our ability to pay dividends is subject to compliance with certain financial covenants contained in our debt facilities, as described in the Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
| ||Per share amounts (in dollars)|
|2022|| || || || || |
|Class A common|| || || || || |
|High||$||23.00 ||$||21.69 ||$||22.56 ||$||18.78 ||$||23.00 |
|Low||16.22 ||16.73 ||13.41 ||13.64 ||13.41 |
|Class B common|
|High||22.30 ||21.77 ||26.64 ||18.63 ||26.64 |
|Low||16.74 ||17.01 ||13.64 ||14.04 ||13.64 |
|Dividends||0.05 ||0.075 ||0.075 ||0.075 ||0.275 |
|2021|| || || || || |
|Class A common|| || || || || |
|High||$||23.90 ||$||26.98 ||$||25.00 ||$||20.87 ||$||26.98 |
|Low||19.13 ||22.51 ||18.58 ||15.88 ||15.88 |
|Class B common|| || || || || |
|High||57.46 ||60.00 ||24.70 ||21.27 ||60.00 |
|Low||18.00 ||22.15 ||17.95 ||16.63 ||16.63 |
|Dividends||— ||— ||0.05 ||0.05 ||0.10 |
The number of holders of record of our Class A and Class B common stock were approximately 10,500 and 700, respectively, as of January 30, 2023.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
During the fourth quarter of 2022, we reacquired shares of our Class A common stock as follows:
of Shares (or
as Part of Publicly
Dollar Value) of
Shares (or Units)
That May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
| || || || ||(in millions of dollars)|
|October 3, 2022 through November 6, 2022||143 ||$||14.53 ||— ||$||— |
|November 7, 2022 through December 4, 2022||68,238 ||16.90 ||68,114 ||48.8 |
|December 5, 2022 through January 1, 2023||408,607 ||16.41 ||406,530 ||42.2 |
|Total||476,988 ||$||16.48 ||474,644 || |
On November 9, 2022, the Company's board of directors approved a plan for the Company to repurchase shares of its Class A common stock with a market value not to exceed $50.0 million through transactions executed in the open market within one year. We may also reacquire shares outside the program in connection with shares sold to cover employee tax withholdings due upon the vesting of restricted stock held by employees. Accordingly, 2,344 shares were reacquired in transactions outside the repurchase program during the Company’s fourth quarter.
The following graph compares the cumulative total return of our Class A common stock with that of the S&P SmallCap 600 Index and the S&P 1500 Human Resources and Employment Services Index for the five years ended December 31, 2022. The graph assumes an investment of $100 on December 31, 2017 and that all dividends were reinvested.
COMPARISON OF FIVE YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Assumes Initial Investment of $100
December 31, 2017 – December 31, 2022
|Kelly Services, Inc.||$||100.00 ||$||76.01 ||$||84.84 ||$||77.59 ||$||63.59 ||$||65.03 |
|S&P SmallCap 600 Index||$||100.00 ||$||91.52 ||$||112.37 ||$||125.05 ||$||158.59 ||$||133.06 |
|S&P 1500 Human Resources and Employment Services Index||$||100.00 ||$||83.73 ||$||102.81 ||$||103.69 ||$||156.71 ||$||117.07 |
ITEM 6. [RESERVED]
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
In 2022, Kelly moved forward on its strategic growth journey amid a dynamic macroeconomic environment in the first half of the year. As the year progressed, a mixed pattern of revenue growth and deceleration emerged and persisted through the balance of 2022 driven by rising inflation, increasing interest rates and heightened economic uncertainty. Consequently, a growing number of employers scaled back or paused hiring – and in some cases reduced the size of their workforces – to align their costs with declining growth. Notwithstanding these dynamics, the labor market remained tight. The economy continued to add jobs – albeit at a slightly slower pace to end the year – and unemployment remained at historically low levels, which contributed to ongoing challenges with sourcing talent.
By executing our strategy in a disciplined manner and focusing on factors within our control, we managed through these ongoing headwinds and achieved solid growth over the prior year.
•We increased total company revenue driven by top-line growth in our Education, SET and OCG business units.
•Our more profitable outcome-based solutions demonstrated resilience amid macroeconomic headwinds and generated solid revenue and gross profit growth.
•Each of our five business units expanded its gross profit rate, reflecting our ongoing drive to shift toward a higher-margin, higher-value business mix.
•Excluding the impact of goodwill impairment charges and a loss on the disposal of our Russian operations, we improved earnings from operations, demonstrating our ability to effectively translate gross margin expansion to earnings growth.
2022 was also a year in which we accelerated our transformation and streamlined our portfolio.
•We ended the cross-ownership arrangement between Kelly and Persol Holdings – selling our investment in the common shares of Persol Holdings and repurchasing our Class A and B common shares held by Persol Holdings – and reduced our ownership interest in our PersolKelly joint venture, unlocking $235 million of liquidity.
•We redeployed a portion of the net proceeds from these transactions to advance our inorganic growth strategy, while preserving the remaining capital to pursue additional high-margin, high-growth acquisitions in the future.
•We monetized non-core real estate holdings, unlocking more capital to invest in growth initiatives.
•We acted decisively to transfer ownership of our Russian operations to a Russian company.
•We increased our dividend to its pre-pandemic level and authorized a $50 million repurchase of outstanding Class A common shares.
Together, these achievements and actions demonstrate our commitment to our specialty growth strategy and create long-term value for all our stakeholders.
As the macroeconomic situation unfolds in 2023, we will stay the course in our pursuit of profitable growth while proactively controlling costs to manage through this economic cycle. In each of our chosen specialties, we will continue to shift toward a business mix characterized not only by higher margins and value, but greater resilience to lessen the impact of market fluctuations. We also intend to drive inorganic growth using our available capital to pursue additional high-quality acquisitions in Education, SET and OCG. Finally, we will continue to invest in technology and new products that will improve the talent and customer experience, increase efficiency and enable organic growth. Together, these actions will ensure that we continue to move forward on our strategic journey in pursuit of profitable, specialty growth.
The constant currency (“CC”) change amounts in the following tables refer to the year-over-year percentage changes resulting from translating 2022 financial data into U.S. dollars using the same foreign currency exchange rates used to translate financial data for 2021. We believe that CC measurements are a useful measure, indicating the actual trends of our operations without distortion due to currency fluctuations. We use CC results when analyzing the performance of our segments and measuring our results against those of our competitors. Additionally, substantially all of our foreign subsidiaries derive revenues and incur cost of services and selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expenses within a single country and currency which, as a result, provides a natural hedge against currency risks in connection with their normal business operations.
CC measures are non-GAAP measures and are used to supplement measures in accordance with GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). Our non-GAAP measures may be calculated differently from those provided by other companies, limiting their usefulness for comparison purposes. Non-GAAP measures should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP.
Reported and CC percentage changes were computed based on actual amounts in thousands of dollars.
Return on sales (earnings from operations divided by revenue from services) and conversion rate (earnings from operations divided by gross profit) are ratios used to measure the Company’s operating efficiency.
EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) and EBITDA margin (EBITDA divided by revenue from services) are measures used for understanding the Company's ability to generate cash flow and for judging overall operating performance.
NM (not meaningful) in the following tables is used in place of percentage changes where: the change is in excess of 500%, the change involves a comparison between earnings and loss amounts, or the comparison amount is zero.
Days sales outstanding (“DSO”) represents the number of days that sales remain unpaid for the period being reported. DSO is calculated by dividing average net sales per day (based on a rolling three-month period) into trade accounts receivable, net of allowances at the period end. Although secondary supplier revenues are recorded on a net basis (net of secondary supplier expense), secondary supplier revenue is included in the daily sales calculation in order to properly reflect the gross revenue amounts billed to the customer.
Results of Operations
(Dollars in millions)
|Revenue from services||$||4,965.4 ||$||4,909.7 ||1.1 ||%|
|Gross profit||1,011.8 ||919.2 ||10.1 |
|SG&A expenses excluding restructuring charges||943.5 ||866.6 ||8.9 |
|Restructuring charges||— ||4.0 ||NM|
|Total SG&A expenses||943.5 ||870.6 ||8.4 |
|Goodwill impairment charge||(41.0)||— ||NM|
|Loss on disposal||(18.7)||— ||NM|
|Gain on sale of assets||6.2 ||— ||NM|
|Earnings (loss) from operations||14.8 ||48.6 ||(69.7)|
|Gain (loss) on investment in Persol Holdings||(67.2)||121.8 ||NM|
|Loss on currency translation from liquidation of subsidiary||(20.4)||— ||NM|
|Gain on insurance settlement||— ||19.0 ||NM|
|Other income (expense), net||1.6 ||(3.6)||146.4 |
|Earnings (loss) before taxes and equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliate||(71.2)||185.8 ||NM|
|Income tax expense (benefit)||(7.9)||35.1 ||(122.6)|
|Equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliate||0.8 ||5.4 ||(85.9)|
|Net earnings (loss)||$||(62.5)||$||156.1 ||NM||%|
|Gross profit rate||20.4 ||%||18.7 ||%||1.7 ||pts.|
|Conversion rate||1.5 ||5.3 ||(3.8)|
The discussion that follows focuses on 2022 results compared to 2021. For a discussion of 2021 results compared to 2020, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 2, 2022, filed on February 17, 2022.
2022 vs. 2021
Revenue from services increased 1.1% on a reported basis and 3.2% on a constant currency basis, and reflects revenue increases in Education, Science, Engineering & Technology, and Outsourcing & Consulting operating segments, partially offset by declines in Professional & Industrial and International segments. Our first quarter 2021 acquisition of Softworld, a technology staffing and solutions firm, and our first quarter 2022 acquisition of RocketPower, an RPO solutions provider, and our second quarter 2022 acquisition of PTS, a specialty firm that provides in-school therapy services, added approximately 180 basis points to the revenue growth rate. Compared to 2021, revenue from staffing services decreased 1.2% and revenue from outcome-based services increased 6.3%. Permanent placement revenue, which is included in revenue from services, increased 18.9% from 2021.
Gross profit increased 10.1% on a reported basis and 12.1% on a constant currency basis on higher revenue volume, combined with an increase in the gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 170 basis points due primarily to favorable product mix, lower employee-related costs, higher permanent placement income and the impact of the acquisitions of Softworld, RocketPower and PTS, which generate higher gross profit rates. The gross profit rate increased in all operating segments. Permanent placement revenue, which is included in revenue from services and has very low direct costs of services, has a disproportionate impact on gross profit rates.
Total SG&A expenses increased 8.4% on a reported basis and 10.0% on a constant currency basis. Approximately 320 basis points of the year-over-year increase is attributable to the first quarter SG&A expenses for Softworld and the SG&A expenses for RocketPower and PTS, including amortization of intangibles and other operating expenses. The increase in SG&A
expenses also reflects increases in salary and related costs and increases in performance-based incentive compensation expenses.
The goodwill impairment charge relates to our RocketPower business, which delivers RPO services primarily to customers in the high-tech industry, and is included in the Outsourcing & Consulting segment. Changes in market conditions related to demand in hiring in the high-tech industry and slowing growth in RPO more broadly resulted in a goodwill impairment charge of $41.0 million in 2022.
Loss on disposal relates to our decision in May 2022 to sell our business in Russia. As a result, our Russian operations were classified as a held for sale disposal group and an impairment loss of $18.5 million representing the excess carrying value over the fair value of the net assets, less costs to sell, was recognized in the second quarter of 2022 with an additional loss of $0.2 million recognized in the third quarter upon completion of the transaction. Gain on sale of assets relates to the disposition of under-utilized real property located in the United States.
Earnings from operations for 2022 totaled $14.8 million, compared to earnings of $48.6 million in 2021. The decline is due primarily to the goodwill impairment charge and the loss on disposal, partially offset by higher gross profit, net of increased SG&A expenses and gain on sale of assets. Included in total earnings from operations in 2022 is approximately $14.4 million related to Softworld, RocketPower and PTS earnings from operations, inclusive of amortization of intangibles but excluding the RocketPower goodwill impairment charge, and $6.3 million in 2021 related to Softworld, inclusive of amortization of intangibles.
The loss on investment in Persol Holdings in 2022 represented the $52.4 million loss resulting from changes in the market price of our investment in the common stock of Persol Holdings up until the date of the transaction and the $14.8 million loss on sale, including transaction costs from the sale of the investment in an open-market transaction. The gain on the investment in Persol Holdings in 2021 resulted from changes in the quoted market price of the Persol Holdings common stock.
Loss on currency translation from liquidation of subsidiary represents the impact of the liquidation of our Kelly Japan subsidiary following the sale of the company’s investment in Persol Holdings and the return of capital through a dividend payment to its U.S. parent.
The change in Other income (expense), net is primarily the result of $5.5 million of foreign exchange gains related to U.S.-denominated cash equivalents held by our Kelly Japan subsidiary following the sale of the Persol Holdings shares and prior to its dividend payment to the U.S. parent in the first quarter of 2022.
Income tax benefit was $7.9 million for 2022 and income tax expense was $35.1 million for 2021. 2022 benefited from lower pretax earnings, changes in the fair value of the Company’s investment in Persol Holdings, and the impairment of tax deductible goodwill. These benefits were offset by the charge associated with tax exempt life insurance cash surrender value losses. Income tax expense for 2021 included charges from changes in the fair value of the Company’s investment in Persol Holdings and the gain on insurance settlement. These amounts were offset by benefits from a change in tax rate in the United Kingdom and tax exempt life insurance cash surrender value gains.
Our tax expense is affected by recurring items, such as the amount of pretax income and its mix by jurisdiction, U.S. work opportunity credits and the change in cash surrender value of tax exempt investments in life insurance policies. It is also affected by discrete items that may occur in any given period but are not consistent from period to period, such as tax law changes, changes in judgment regarding the realizability of deferred tax assets, the tax effects of stock compensation and, prior to February 2022, changes in the fair value of the Company’s investment in Persol Holdings which were treated as discrete since they could not be estimated.
The net loss for 2022 was $62.5 million, compared to net earnings of $156.1 million for 2021. This change was due to the Persol Holdings investment, including the first quarter 2022 sale and related impacts, the goodwill impairment charge, the loss on disposal related to the sale of our Russian operations, partially offset by improved gross profit in 2022 and the gain on sale of under-utilized real property in the United States.
Operating Results By Segment
(Dollars in millions)
| ||2022||2021||% Change|
|Revenue From Services: |
|Professional & Industrial||$||1,666.2 ||$||1,837.4 ||(9.3)||%|
|Science, Engineering & Technology||1,265.4 ||1,156.8 ||9.4 |
|Education||636.2 ||416.5 ||52.7 |
|Outsourcing & Consulting||468.0 ||432.1 ||8.3 |
|International||932.2 ||1,067.8 ||(12.7)|
|Less: Intersegment revenue||(2.6)||(0.9)||182.8 |
|Consolidated Total||$||4,965.4 ||$||4,909.7 ||1.1 ||%|
2022 vs. 2021
Professional & Industrial revenue from services decreased 9.3%. The decrease was due primarily to a 12.4% decline in staffing services resulting from lower hours volume, partially offset by higher bill rates. Included in the decline in hours was the impact from a shift of a large staffing customer to a permanent placement model which resulted in lower staffing volume. Revenue from outcome-based services declined 0.3% due to lower demand for our call center specialty, partially offset by growth in other specialties.
Science, Engineering & Technology revenue from services increased 9.4% on a reported basis, which includes revenue from the acquisition of Softworld in the second quarter of 2021. Excluding the impact of the addition of Softworld revenue in the first quarter of 2022, the revenue growth was 6.1%, which was driven by increases in our outcome-based services as well as an increase in revenue in our staffing business coming from increases in bill rates and permanent placement income, partially offset by a decline in hours.
Education revenue from services increased 52.7%. The revenue increase includes the impact of the acquisition of PTS in May 2022. On an organic basis, revenue increased 45.9% reflecting increased demand from existing customers, new customer wins and the impact of higher bill rates.
Outsourcing & Consulting revenue from services increased 8.3% on a reported basis, which includes the revenue from the acquisition of RocketPower in March 2022. On an organic basis, revenue growth was 2.7% due primarily to strong demand for RPO services, coupled with revenue growth in MSP, partially offset by declines in PPO revenue.
International revenue from services decreased 12.7% on a reported basis and decreased 4.7% in constant currency. The decrease was primarily the result of the sale of our Russian operations in July 2022, combined with revenue declines in Mexico due to the impact of legislation enacted in the third quarter of 2021, which placed restrictions on the staffing industry. Revenue in Europe decreased 9.2% on a reported basis and decreased 0.3% in constant currency, with the impact of the sale of our Russian operations nearly offset by growth in most geographies.
Operating Results By Segment (continued)
(Dollars in millions)
|Professional & Industrial||$||302.5 ||$||310.0 ||(2.4)||%|
|Science, Engineering & Technology||297.0 ||253.9 ||17.0 |
|Education||100.3 ||65.1 ||54.0 |
|Outsourcing & Consulting||169.6 ||141.4 ||20.0 |
|International||142.4 ||148.8 ||(4.3)|
|Consolidated Total||$||1,011.8 ||$||919.2 ||10.1 ||%|
|Gross Profit Rate:|
|Professional & Industrial||18.2||%||16.9||%||1.3 ||pts.|
|Science, Engineering & Technology||23.5||21.9||1.6 |
|Outsourcing & Consulting||36.3||32.7||3.6 |
|Consolidated Total||20.4||%||18.7||%||1.7 ||pts.|
2022 vs. 2021
Gross profit for the Professional & Industrial segment decreased due to lower revenue volume, partially offset by an increase in the gross profit rate. In comparison to the prior year, the gross profit rate increased 130 basis points. This increase reflects improved business mix, higher permanent placement income, including conversion fees related to a large customer and lower employee-related costs.
Science, Engineering & Technology gross profit increased on higher revenue volume, combined with an increase in the gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 160 basis points due to improved specialty mix, including the acquisition of Softworld which generates higher gross profit margins, and increased permanent placement income, partially offset by higher employee-related costs.
Gross profit for the Education segment increased on higher revenue volume and an increase in the gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 20 basis points, due primarily to the acquisition of PTS which generates higher margins, and higher permanent placement income at Greenwood/Asher.
Outsourcing & Consulting gross profit increased on higher revenue volume, combined with an increase in the gross profit rate. The gross profit rate increased 360 basis points, primarily due to a change in product mix within this segment. Growth in RPO, including the acquisition of RocketPower, and MSP with higher margins, was coupled with decreased revenues in our PPO product, which generates lower profit margins.
International gross profit decreased 4.3% on a reported basis and improved 4.6% on a constant currency basis. On a reported basis, lower revenue volume was partially offset by an improved gross profit rate. On a constant currency basis, the improved gross profit rate more than offset the impact of lower revenue volume. In comparison to the prior year, the gross profit rate increased 140 basis points, primarily due to improved business mix and higher permanent placement income.
Operating Results By Segment (continued)
(Dollars in millions)
|Professional & Industrial||$||270.5 ||$||278.6 ||(2.9)||%|
|Science, Engineering & Technology||214.9 ||180.2 ||19.2 |
|Education||81.8 ||62.1 ||31.7 |
|Outsourcing & Consulting||149.8 ||122.7 ||22.1 |
|International||132.5 ||138.9 ||(4.6)|
|Corporate expenses||94.0 ||88.1 ||6.6 |
|Consolidated Total||$||943.5 ||$||870.6 ||8.4 ||%|
2022 vs. 2021
Total SG&A expenses in Professional & Industrial decreased 2.9%, primarily due to lower expenses to support lower volumes in our staffing and outcome-based call center specialties, partially offset by higher performance-based incentive compensation expense.
Total SG&A expenses in Science, Engineering & Technology increased 19.2%, and includes the impact of the acquisition of Softworld in the second quarter of 2021. Excluding the impact of the addition of Softworld expenses in the first quarter of 2022, SG&A expenses increased 13.6%. The increase in organic SG&A expenses is due primarily to higher performance-based incentive compensation expense and higher salary-related costs from increasing headcount.
Total SG&A expenses in Education increased 31.7%, and includes the impact of the acquisition of PTS in May 2022. Excluding the impact of the PTS acquisition, SG&A expenses increased 24.0%, due primarily to higher salary-related expenses as headcount has increased as revenues have grown.
Total SG&A expenses in Outsourcing & Consulting increased 22.1%, and includes the impact of the acquisition of RocketPower in March 2022. Excluding the impact of the RocketPower acquisition, SG&A expenses increased 12.0%, due primarily to higher salary-related expenses as headcount has increased as revenues have grown.
Total SG&A expenses in International decreased 4.6% on a reported basis and increased 3.6% on a constant currency basis. The increase in constant currency was primarily due to higher salary-related expenses driven by an increase in headcount, reflecting improving revenue in Europe, partially offset by the impact of the sale of our Russian operations in July 2022.
Corporate expenses increased 6.6%, primarily due to higher performance-based incentive compensation expense.
Operating Results By Segment (continued)
(Dollars in millions)
|Earnings (Loss) from Operations:|
|Professional & Industrial||$||32.0 ||$||31.4 ||1.8 ||%|
|Science, Engineering & Technology||82.1 ||73.7 ||11.4 |
|Education||18.5 ||3.0 ||NM|
|Outsourcing & Consulting||(21.2)||18.7 ||NM|
|International||9.9 ||9.9 ||(0.5)|
|Loss on disposal||(18.7)||— ||NM|
|Gain on sale of assets||6.2 ||— ||NM|
|Consolidated Total||$||14.8 ||$||48.6 ||(69.7)||%|
2022 vs. 2021
Professional & Industrial reported earnings of $32.0 million, a 1.8% increase from 2021. The increase was due to effective cost management as gross profit declined.
Science, Engineering & Technology reported earnings of $82.1 million, an 11.4% increase from 2021. The increase in earnings was primarily due to the impact of the Softworld acquisition. In addition, increases in gross profit in our outcome-based and telecom specialties were partially offset by increases in certain expenses in most of our specialties in the SET business unit, including those related to additional headcount and increased performance-based incentive compensation.
Education reported earnings of $18.5 million in 2022, compared to earnings of $3.0 million in 2021. The change was primarily due to the increase in revenue resulting from improved demand for our services as compared to 2021, coupled with operating leverage. 2022 results also include earnings of $3.8 million from PTS acquired in May 2022.
Outsourcing & Consulting reported a loss of $21.2 million in 2022, compared to earnings of $18.7 million in 2021, due primarily to a charge of $41.0 million related to the impairment of goodwill of RocketPower in 2022.
International reported earnings of $9.9 million in both 2022 and 2021. The decline in earnings due to the sale of operations in Russia was nearly offset by growth in most geographies.
Results of Operations
Historically, we have financed our operations through cash generated by operating activities and access to credit markets. Our working capital requirements are primarily generated from temporary employee payroll, which is generally paid weekly or monthly, and customer accounts receivable, which is generally outstanding for longer periods. Since receipts from customers lag payroll paid to temporary employees, working capital requirements increase substantially in periods of growth. Conversely, when economic activity slows, working capital requirements may substantially decrease. This may result in an increase in our operating cash flows; however, any such increase would not be sustainable in the event that an economic downturn continued for an extended period.
As highlighted in the consolidated statements of cash flows, our liquidity and available capital resources are impacted by four key components: cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, operating activities, investing activities and financing activities.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash totaled $162.4 million at year-end 2022, compared to $119.5 million at year-end 2021. As further described below, during 2022, we used $76.3 million of cash for operating activities, generated $167.5 million of cash from investing activities and used $50.6 million of cash for financing activities.
In 2022, we used $76.3 million of net cash for operating activities, as compared to generating $85.0 million in 2021 and generating $186.0 million in 2020. Net cash used for operating activities in 2022 and 2021 included $86.8 million and $29.7 million, respectively, of cash outflows related to the repayment of U.S. payroll taxes originally deferred in 2020. Net cash from operating activities in 2020 benefited from the deferral of $117.0 million of U.S. payroll taxes. In addition, in 2022 we paid $48.4 million of income taxes related to the sale of Persol Holdings common stock.
The change from 2021 to 2022 was primarily due to the impact of payments related to the payroll tax deferral, income tax payments related to the sale of Persol Holdings common stock and increased working capital requirements. Trade accounts receivable totaled $1.5 billion at year-end 2022 and $1.4 billion at year-end 2021. Global DSO for the fourth quarter was 61 days for 2022, compared to 60 days for 2021. Accounts payable and accrued liabilities was $723.3 million and increased from year-end 2021 as a result of increased MSP supplier payables. The change from 2020 to 2021 was primarily due to the deferral of payroll tax payments, partially offset by the impact of higher global DSO.
Our working capital position (total current assets less total current liabilities) was $586.4 million at year-end 2022, an increase of $92.9 million from year-end 2021. Excluding the increase in cash, working capital increased $51.9 million from year-end 2021. The current ratio (total current assets divided by total current liabilities) was 1.5 at year-end 2022 and 2021.
In 2022, we generated $167.5 million of net cash from investing activities, compared to using $180.7 million in 2021 and generating $9.8 million in 2020. Included in cash generated from investing activities in 2022 is $196.9 million of proceeds from the sale of the investment in Persol Holdings, $119.5 million of proceeds from the sale of almost all of the Company's shares in our equity investment in PersolKelly and $10.1 million of proceeds from the sale of land and other real property. This was partially offset by $58.3 million of cash used for the acquisition of RocketPower in March 2022, net of cash received, $84.8 million of cash used for the acquisition of PTS in May 2022, net of cash received, and $6.0 million of cash disposed from the sale of our operations in Russia in July 2022, net of proceeds.
Included in cash used for investing activities in 2021 is $213.0 million of cash used for the acquisition of Softworld in April 2021, net of cash received and including working capital adjustments. This was partially offset by $19.0 million of proceeds from an insurance settlement that represented a payment received in the fourth quarter of 2021 related to the settlement of claims under a representations and warranties insurance policy purchased by the Company in connection with the acquisition of Softworld.
Included in cash generated from investing activities in 2020 is $55.5 million of proceeds representing the cash received, net of transaction expenses, for the sale of three headquarters properties as a part of a sale and leaseback transaction and $5.6 million received from a payment on the loans to PersolKelly Pte. Ltd. This was partially offset by cash used for the acquisitions of
Insight in January 2020 and Greenwood/Asher in November 2020. Cash used for the acquisition of Insight totaled $36.4 million, net of the cash received and including working capital adjustments. Cash used for the acquisition of Greenwood/Asher totaled $2.8 million, net of the cash received and including working capital adjustments.
Capital expenditures totaled $12.0 million in 2022, $11.2 million in 2021 and $15.5 million in 2020. Capital expenditures in both 2022 and 2021 primarily related to the Company's IT infrastructure, technology programs and headquarters furniture and fixtures. Capital expenditures in 2020 primarily related to the Company's headquarters leasehold improvements, IT infrastructure and technology programs.
In 2022, we used $50.6 million of cash for financing activities, as compared to using $8.1 million in both 2021 and 2020. The change in cash used for financing activities was primarily related to the buyback of the Company's common shares held by Persol Holdings for $27.2 million in February 2022, $7.8 million in share repurchases of the Company's Class A common stock in the fourth quarter of 2022 and the year-over-year change in dividend payments. Dividends paid per common share were $0.275 in 2022, $0.10 in 2021 and $0.075 in 2020. Payments of dividends are restricted by the financial covenants contained in our debt facilities. Details of this restriction are contained in the Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Changes in net cash from financing activities are also impacted by short-term borrowing activities. Debt totaled $0.7 million at year-end 2022, which represented local borrowings, compared to no debt at year-end 2021. Debt-to-total capital (total debt reported in the consolidated balance sheet divided by total debt plus stockholders’ equity) is a common ratio to measure the relative capital structure and leverage of the Company. Our ratio of debt-to-total capital was 0.1% at year-end 2022 and 0.0% at year-end 2021.
In 2022, the net change in short-term borrowings was primarily due to borrowings on local lines of credit. In 2021 and 2020, the net change in short-term borrowings was primarily due to payments on local lines of credit.
Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments
Summarized below are our obligations and commitments to make future payments as of year-end 2022:
| || ||Payment due by period|
|1-3 Years||3-5 Years|
| ||(In millions of dollars)|
|Leases||$||85.9 ||$||19.1 ||$||23.3 ||$||13.2 ||$||30.3 |
|Short-term borrowings||0.7 ||0.7 ||— ||— ||— |
|Accrued workers’ compensation||63.6 ||22.9 ||19.1 ||8.3 ||13.3 |
|Accrued retirement benefits||197.5 ||23.4 ||46.7 ||46.9 ||80.5 |
|Other liabilities||7.4 ||2.2 ||4.2 ||0.6 ||0.4 |
|Uncertain income tax positions||0.6 ||0.2 ||0.3 ||0.1 ||— |
|Purchase obligations ||53.0 ||32.9 ||20.1 ||— ||— |
|Total||$||408.7 ||$||101.4 ||$||113.7 ||$||69.1 ||$||124.5 |
Purchase obligations above represent unconditional commitments relating primarily to technology services and online tools which we expect to utilize generally within the next three fiscal years, in the ordinary course of business. We have no material, unrecorded commitments, losses, contingencies or guarantees associated with any related parties or unconsolidated entities.
We expect to meet our ongoing short-term and long-term cash requirements principally through cash generated from operations, available cash and equivalents, securitization of customer receivables and committed unused credit facilities. Additional funding sources could include additional bank facilities or sale of non-core assets. To meet significant cash requirements related to our nonqualified retirement plan, we may utilize proceeds from Company-owned life insurance policies. During 2020, cash generated from operations was supplemented by the deferral of payments of the Company's U.S. social security taxes as allowed by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act. We have repaid the $117.0 million deferred payroll tax balances, including $29.5 million in the first quarter of 2022 and $57.3 million in the fourth quarter of 2022.
We utilize intercompany loans, dividends, capital contributions and redemptions to effectively manage our cash on a global basis. We periodically review our foreign subsidiaries’ cash balances and projected cash needs. As part of those reviews, we may identify cash that we feel should be repatriated to optimize the Company’s overall capital structure. As of the 2022 year end, these reviews have not resulted in specific plans to repatriate a majority of our international cash balances. We expect much of our international cash will be needed to fund working capital growth in our local operations as working capital needs, primarily trade accounts receivable, increase during periods of growth. A cash pooling arrangement (the “Cash Pool”) is available to fund general corporate needs internationally. The Cash Pool is a set of cash accounts maintained with a single bank that must, as a whole, maintain at least a zero balance; individual accounts may be positive or negative. This allows countries with excess cash to invest and countries with cash needs to utilize the excess cash.
At year-end 2022, we had $200.0 million of available capacity on our $200.0 million revolving credit facility and $100.5 million of available capacity on our $150.0 million securitization facility. The securitization facility carried no short-term borrowings and $49.5 million of standby letters of credit related to workers’ compensation. Together, the revolving credit and securitization facilities provide the Company with committed funding capacity that may be used for general corporate purposes subject to financial covenants and restrictions. While we believe these facilities will cover our working capital needs over the short term, if economic conditions or operating results change significantly from our current expectations, we may need to seek additional sources of funds. Throughout 2022 and as of the 2022 year end, we met the debt covenants related to our revolving credit facility and securitization facility.
At year-end 2022, we also had additional unsecured, uncommitted short-term credit facilities totaling $5.9 million, under which we had $0.7 million of borrowings. Details of our debt facilities as of the 2022 year end are contained in the Debt footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
We have historically managed our cash and debt very closely to optimize our capital structure. As our cash balances build, we tend to pay down debt as appropriate. Conversely, when working capital needs grow, we tend to use corporate cash and cash available in the Cash Pool first, and then access our borrowing facilities. We expect our working capital requirements to increase if demand for our services increases. We also expect to use $42.2 million of cash for repurchases of the Company's Class A common stock during 2023 pursuant to the $50.0 million plan approved by the Company's board of directors on November 9, 2022.
In February 2022, we completed transactions to monetize a substantial portion of our assets in the Asia-Pacific region which will allow us to strategically redeploy resources to accelerate our growth. Specifically, we concluded our cross-shareholding arrangement with Persol Holdings and reduced our ownership interest in PersolKelly, our APAC joint venture. We sold our investment in Persol Holdings common stock in an open-market transaction. We repurchased the 1.6 million Kelly Class A and 1,475 Kelly Class B common shares owned by Persol Holdings at a price based on the last five trading days prior to the transaction. We sold almost all of our ownership interest in PersolKelly to our joint venture partner. In 2022, the Company paid $48.4 million in taxes resulting from the sale of the Persol Holdings shares.
We monitor the credit ratings of our major banking partners on a regular basis and have regular discussions with them. Based on our reviews and communications, we believe the risk of one or more of our banks not being able to honor commitments is insignificant. We also review the ratings and holdings of our money market funds and other investment vehicles regularly to ensure high credit quality and access to our invested cash.
Critical Accounting Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. In this process, it is necessary for us to make certain assumptions and related estimates affecting the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and the attached notes. Actual results can differ from assumed and estimated amounts.
Critical accounting estimates are those that we believe require the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Judgments and uncertainties affecting the application of those estimates may result in materially different amounts being reported under different conditions or using different assumptions. We consider the following estimates to be most critical in understanding the judgments involved in preparing our consolidated financial statements.
In the U.S., we have a combination of insurance and self-insurance contracts under which we effectively bear the first $1.0 million of risk per single accident. There is no aggregate limitation on our per-accident exposure under these insurance and self-insurance programs. We establish accruals for workers’ compensation utilizing actuarial methods to estimate the undiscounted future cash payments that will be made to satisfy the claims, including an allowance for incurred-but-not-reported claims. We retain an independent consulting actuary to establish ultimate loss forecasts for the current and prior accident years of our insurance and self-insurance programs. The consulting actuary establishes loss development factors and loss rates, based on our historical claims experience as well as industry experience, and applies those factors to current claims information to derive an estimate of our ultimate claims liability. In preparing the estimates, the consulting actuary may consider factors such as the nature, frequency and severity of the claims; reserving practices of our third party claims administrators; performance of our medical cost management and return to work programs; changes in our territory and business line mix; and current legal, economic and regulatory factors such as industry estimates of medical cost trends. Where appropriate, multiple generally accepted actuarial techniques are applied and tested in the course of preparing the loss forecast. We use the ultimate loss forecasts, as developed by the consulting actuary, to establish total expected program costs for each accident year by adding our estimates of non-loss costs such as claims handling fees and excess insurance premiums. When claims exceed the applicable loss limit or self-insured retention and realization of recovery of the claim from existing insurance policies is deemed probable, we record a receivable from the insurance company for the excess amount.
We evaluate the accrual quarterly and make adjustments as needed. The ultimate cost of these claims may be greater than or less than the established accrual. While we believe that the recorded amounts are reasonable, there can be no assurance that changes to our estimates will not occur due to limitations inherent in the estimation process. In the event we determine that a smaller or larger accrual is appropriate, we would record a credit or a charge to cost of services in the period in which we made such a determination. The accrual for workers’ compensation, net of related receivables which are included in prepaid expenses and other current assets and other assets in the consolidated balance sheet, was $43.3 million and $48.4 million at year-end 2022 and 2021, respectively.
We account for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting, in which the purchase price is allocated for assets acquired and liabilities assumed and recorded at the estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Management is required to make significant assumptions and estimates in determining the fair value of the assets acquired, particularly intangible assets. Purchased intangible assets are primarily comprised of acquired trade names and customer relationships that are recorded at fair value at the date of acquisition. We utilize third-party valuation specialists to assist us in the determination of the fair value of the intangibles. The fair value of trade name intangibles is determined using the relief-from-royalty method, which relies on the use of estimates and assumptions about projected revenue growth rates, royalty rates and discount rates. The fair value of customer relationship intangibles is determined using the multi-period excess earnings method, which relies on the use of estimates and assumptions about projected revenue growth rates, customer attrition rates, profit margins and discount rates. Determining the useful lives of intangible assets also requires judgment and are inherently uncertain. There is a measurement period of up to one year in which to finalize the fair value determinations and preliminary fair value estimates may be revised if new information is obtained during this period.
Income tax expense is based on expected income and statutory tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Judgment is required in determining our income tax expense.
Our effective tax rate includes the impact of accruals and changes to accruals that we consider appropriate, as well as related interest and penalties. A number of years may lapse before a particular matter, for which we have or have not established an accrual, is audited and finally resolved. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of resolution of any particular tax matter, we believe that our accruals are appropriate under generally accepted accounting principles. Favorable or unfavorable adjustments of the accrual for any particular issue would be recognized as an increase or decrease to our income tax expense in the period of a change in facts and circumstances. Our current tax accruals are presented in income and other taxes in the consolidated balance sheet and long-term tax accruals are presented in other long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet.
Tax laws require items to be included in the tax return at different times than the items are reflected in the consolidated financial statements. As a result, the income tax expense reflected in our consolidated financial statements is different than the liability reported in our tax return. Some of these differences are permanent, which are not deductible or taxable on our tax return, and some are temporary differences, which give rise to deferred tax assets and liabilities. We establish valuation allowances for our deferred tax assets when the amount of expected future taxable income is not likely to support the use of the deduction or credit. Our net deferred tax asset is recorded using currently enacted tax laws, and may need to be adjusted in the event tax laws change.
The U.S. work opportunity credit is allowed for wages earned by employees in certain targeted groups. The actual amount of creditable wages in a particular period is estimated, since the credit is only available once an employee reaches a minimum employment period and the employee’s inclusion in a targeted group is certified by the applicable state. As these events often occur after the period the wages are earned, judgment is required in determining the amount of work opportunity credits accrued for in each period. We evaluate the accrual regularly throughout the year and make adjustments as needed.
We test goodwill for impairment annually and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. GAAP requires that goodwill be tested for impairment at a reporting unit level. For segments with a goodwill balance, we have determined that our reporting units are the same as our operating and reportable segments based on our organizational structure or one level below our operating segments (the component level).
We may first use a qualitative assessment ("step zero test") for the annual impairment test if we have determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value for one or more reporting units is greater than their carrying value. In conducting the qualitative assessment, we assess the totality of relevant events and circumstances that affect the fair value or carrying value of the reporting unit. Such events and circumstances may include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions, cost factors, overall financial performance, entity-specific events and events affecting a reporting unit.
If we elect to forgo the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit, goodwill is tested for impairment by comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value ("step one test"). If the estimated fair value of a reporting unit exceeds the carrying value of the net assets assigned to a reporting unit, goodwill is not considered impaired and no further testing is required. If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to a reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value of a reporting unit, goodwill is deemed impaired and is written down to the extent of the difference.
For the step one quantitative test, we determine the fair value of our reporting units using the income approach. Under the income approach, estimated fair value is determined based on estimated future cash flows discounted by an estimated market participant weighted-average cost of capital, which reflects the overall level of inherent risk of the reporting unit being measured. Estimated future cash flows are based on our internal projection model and reflects management’s outlook for the reporting units. Assumptions and estimates about future cash flows and discount rates are complex and often subjective. They can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends, and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy and our internal forecasts. Our analysis used significant assumptions by reporting unit, including: expected future revenue growth rates, profit margins and discount rate.
The goodwill resulting from the acquisition of RocketPower during the first quarter of 2022 was allocated to the OCG reportable segment and RocketPower was deemed to be a separate reporting unit. The goodwill resulting from the acquisition of PTS during the second quarter of 2022 was allocated to the Education reportable segment and PTS was deemed to be a separate reporting unit. The goodwill resulting from the acquisition of Softworld during the second quarter of 2021 was allocated to the SET reportable segment and Softworld was deemed to be a separate reporting unit. See the Acquisitions and Dispositions footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for more information.
We completed our annual impairment test for all reporting units with goodwill in the fourth quarter for the fiscal year ended 2022. We performed a step one quantitative test for the Softworld and PTS reporting units. As a result of the quantitative assessment, we determined that the estimated fair value of the Softworld and PTS reporting units was more than its carrying value. Additionally, we performed a step zero qualitative analysis for the Education and RocketPower reporting units to determine whether a further quantitative analysis was necessary and concluded that a step one quantitative analysis was not necessary at that time. As a result of the quantitative and qualitative assessments, the Company determined goodwill related to these reporting units was not impaired at that time.
During 2022, customers within the high-tech industry vertical, in which RocketPower specializes, reduced or eliminated their full-time hiring, reducing demand for RocketPower's services, and on-going economic uncertainty has more broadly impacted the growth in demand for RPO in the near-term. These changes in market conditions therefore caused a triggering event requiring an interim impairment test for goodwill as of the third quarter of 2022. Job eliminations in the high-tech industry vertical continued during the fourth quarter of 2022, indicating a broad, sustained reduction in hiring was likely and is now expected to last through much of 2023, directly impacting RocketPower and the demand for RocketPower's services in this vertical. These changes in market conditions caused another triggering event requiring an interim impairment test for goodwill as of year-end 2022.
We performed an interim step one quantitative test for RocketPower’s goodwill and determined that the estimated fair value of the reporting unit no longer exceeded the carrying value as of third quarter-end and year-end 2022. Based on the result of our interim goodwill impairment test, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $30.7 million in the third quarter of 2022 and we recorded an additional goodwill impairment charge of $10.3 million to write off the remaining balance of RocketPower’s goodwill in the fourth quarter of 2022, for a total goodwill impairment charge of $41.0 million as of year-end 2022.
Our analysis used significant assumptions, including: expected future revenue growth rates, profit margins and discount rate. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made are reasonable and appropriate, different assumptions and estimates could materially impact our reported financial results. Different assumptions of the anticipated future results and growth from our business could result in an impairment charge, which would decrease operating income and result in lower asset values on our consolidated balance sheet. The estimated fair value of the Softworld and PTS reporting units exceeds the carrying value by more than 10%. As a measure of sensitivity of the fair value for the Softworld and PTS reporting units, while holding all other assumptions constant, an increase in the discount rate of 100 basis points or a decrease of 100 basis points in the revenue growth rate assumptions for each forecasted period used to determine the fair value of both reporting units would not result in an impairment of goodwill.
We completed our annual impairment test for all reporting units with goodwill in the fourth quarter for the fiscal year ended 2021. We performed a step one quantitative test for the Softworld reporting unit. As a result of the quantitative assessment, we determined that the estimated fair value of the Softworld reporting unit was more than its carrying value. Additionally, we performed a step zero qualitative analysis for the Education reporting unit to determine whether a further quantitative analysis was necessary and concluded that a step one quantitative analysis was not necessary. As a result of the quantitative and qualitative assessments, the Company determined goodwill was not impaired as of year-end 2021.
At year-end 2022 and 2021, total goodwill amounted to $151.1 million and $114.8 million, respectively. See the Goodwill and Intangible Assets footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements for more information.
Kelly is subject to legal proceedings, investigations and claims arising out of the normal course of business. Kelly routinely assesses the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes to these matters, as well as ranges of probable losses. A determination of the amount of the accruals required, if any, for these contingencies is made after analysis of each known issue. Development of the analysis includes consideration of many factors including: potential exposure, the status of proceedings, negotiations, discussions with our outside counsel and results of similar litigation. The required accruals may change in the future due to new developments in each matter. For further discussion, see the Contingencies footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements. At year-end 2022 and 2021, the gross accrual for litigation costs amounted to $2.3 million and $1.4 million, respectively, which is included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities and in accrued workers’ compensation and other claims in the consolidated balance sheet.
NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
See New Accounting Pronouncements footnote in the notes to our consolidated financial statements presented in Part II, Item 8 of this report for a description of new accounting pronouncements.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements contained herein and in our investor conference call related to these results are “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of the applicable securities laws and regulations. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions and are subject to a number of significant risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements include statements which are predictive in nature, which depend upon or refer to future events or conditions, or which include words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” or variations or negatives thereof or by similar or comparable words or phrases. In addition, any statements concerning future financial performance (including future revenues, earnings or growth rates), ongoing business strategies or prospects, and possible future actions by us that may be provided by management, including oral statements or other written materials released to the public, are also forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and projections about future events and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions about our Company and economic and market factors in the countries in which we do business, among other things. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and we have no specific intention to update these statements.
Actual events and results may differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in forward-looking statements due to a number of factors. The principal important risk factors that could cause our actual performance and future events and actions to differ materially from such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, changing market and economic conditions, the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, competitive market pressures including pricing and technology introductions and disruptions, disruption in the labor market and weakened demand for human capital resulting from technological advances, competition law risks, the impact of changes in laws and regulations (including federal, state and international tax laws), unexpected changes in claim trends on workers’ compensation, unemployment, disability and medical benefit plans, or the risk of additional tax liabilities in excess of our estimates, our ability to achieve our business strategy, our ability to successfully develop new service offerings, material changes in demand from or loss of large corporate customers as well as changes in their buying practices, risks particular to doing business with government or government contractors, the risk of damage to our brands, our exposure to risks associated with services outside traditional staffing, including business process outsourcing, services of licensed professionals and services connecting talent to independent work, our increasing dependency on third parties for the execution of critical functions, our ability to effectively implement and manage our information technology strategy, the risks associated with past and future acquisitions, including risk of related impairment of goodwill and intangible assets, exposure to risks associated with certain equity investments, including with strategic partners, risks associated with conducting business in foreign countries, including foreign currency fluctuations, risks associated with violations of anti-corruption, trade protection and other laws and regulations, availability of qualified full-time employees, availability of temporary workers with appropriate skills required by customers, liabilities for employment-related claims and losses, including class action lawsuits and collective actions, our ability to sustain critical business applications through our key data centers, risks arising from failure to preserve the privacy of information entrusted to us or to meet our obligations under global privacy laws, the risk of cyberattacks or other breaches of network or information technology security, our ability to realize value from our tax credit and net operating loss carryforwards, our ability to maintain specified financial covenants in our bank facilities to continue to access credit markets, and other risks, uncertainties and factors discussed in this report and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Actual results may differ materially from any forward-looking statements contained herein, and we undertake no duty to update any forward-looking statement to conform the statement to actual results or changes in the Company’s expectations. Certain risk factors are discussed more fully under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
We are exposed to foreign currency risk primarily related to our foreign subsidiaries. Exchange rates impact the U.S. dollar value of our reported earnings, our investments in and held by subsidiaries, local currency denominated borrowings and intercompany transactions with and between subsidiaries. Our foreign subsidiaries primarily derive revenues and incur expenses within a single country and currency which, as a result, provide a natural hedge against currency risks in connection with normal business operations. Accordingly, changes in foreign currency rates vs. the U.S. dollar, euro or Swiss franc generally do not impact local cash flows. Intercompany transactions which create transactional foreign currency risk include services, royalties, loans, contributions and distributions.
In addition, we are exposed to interest rate risks through our use of the multi-currency line of credit and other borrowings. A hypothetical fluctuation of 10% of market interest rates would not have had a material impact on 2022 earnings.
We are exposed to market risk as a result of our obligation to pay benefits under our nonqualified deferred compensation plan and our related investments in company-owned variable universal life insurance policies. The obligation to employees increases and decreases based on movements in the equity and debt markets. The investments in mutual funds, as part of the
company-owned variable universal life insurance policies, are designed to mitigate, but not eliminate, this risk with offsetting gains and losses.
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
The financial statements and supplementary data required by this Item are set forth in the accompanying index on page 42 of this filing and are presented in pages 43-95.
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE.
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES.
Conclusion Regarding the Effectiveness of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Based on their evaluation as of the end of the period covered by this report, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) are effective at a reasonable assurance level.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management’s report on internal control over financial reporting is presented preceding the consolidated financial statements on page 43 of this report.
Attestation Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 1, 2023, as stated in their report which appears herein.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our fourth fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION.
ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS.
Information required by Part III with respect to Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance (Item 10), Executive Compensation (Item 11), Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters (Item 12), Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence (Item 13) and Principal Accounting Fees and Services (Item 14), except as set forth under the titles “Executive Officers of the Registrant,” which is included on pages 38-39, and “Code of Business Conduct and Ethics,” which is included on page 40, (Item 10), and except as set forth under the title “Equity Compensation Plan Information,” which is included on page 40, (Item 12), is to be included in a definitive proxy statement filed not later than 120 days after the close of our fiscal year and the proxy statement, when filed, is incorporated in this report by reference.
ITEM 10. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT.
The following individuals serve as executive officers of the Company as of January 1, 2023:
|Name/Office||Age||Served as an Officer Since||Business Experience During Last 5 Years|
Peter W. Quigley
Chief Executive Officer
|61||2004||Served as officer of the Company.|
Olivier G. Thirot
Executive Vice President
and Chief Financial Officer
|61||2008||Served as officer of the Company.|
Peter M. Boland
Senior Vice President
Chief Marketing Officer
January 2018 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.
|Amy J. Bouque|
Senior Vice President
Chief People Officer
September 2020 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.
January 2016 - August 2020
Executive Director - Talent Management -
Ally Financial, Detroit Michigan
Tammy L. Browning
Senior Vice President
October 2018 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.
October 2010 - April 2018
SVP Global Operations - Yoh
Timothy L. Dupree
Senior Vice President
President, Kelly Professional &
|46||2014||Served as officer of the Company.|
Senior Vice President
President, Kelly International
|53||2008||Served as officer of the Company.|
ITEM 10. EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT (continued)
Served as an
During Last 5 Years
Daniel Hugo Malan
Senior Vice President
President, Kelly Science,
Engineering & Technology
March 2020 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.
December 2019 - February 2020
Managing Partner - Talent Capital Advisors
August 2018 - November 2019
Chief Operating Officer - Employbridge
December 2016 - July 2018
President, Commercial Business -
|Darren L. Simons|
Senior Vice President and Chief
|52||2021||July 2021 - Present|
Served as officer of the Company.
July 2020 - July 2021
President - RDI Global Solutions
May 2019 - July 2020
President - Cielo
May 2014 - April 2019
SVP and President - CDI
Nicola M. Soares
Senior Vice President
President, Kelly Education
|54||2011||Served as officer of the Company.|
Vanessa P. Williams
Senior Vice President
October 2020 - Present
Served as officer of the Company.
February 2020 - September 2020
SVP, Division General Counsel-
Transportation and Third Party
Risk Management and Compliance -
December 2016 - February 2020
VP, Division General Counsel -
Transportation - IHS Markit
Laura S. Lockhart
Vice President, Corporate Controller
and Chief Accounting Officer
|53||2008||Served as officer of the Company.|
CODE OF BUSINESS CONDUCT AND ETHICS.
We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics that applies to our directors, officers and employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer or controller or persons performing similar functions. The Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is included as Exhibit 14 in the Index to Exhibits on page 96. We have posted our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics on our website at www.kellyservices.com. We intend to post any changes in or waivers from our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics applicable to any of these officers on our website.
ITEM 12. SECURITIES AUTHORIZED FOR ISSUANCE UNDER EQUITY COMPENSATION PLANS.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table shows the number of shares of our Class A common stock that may be issued upon the exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights, the weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights, and the number of securities remaining available for future issuance under our equity compensation plans as of the fiscal year end for 2022.
| ||Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights||Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights||Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in the first column)|
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders - Fixed Share provision(1),(2)
|— ||$||— ||2,705,794 |
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders(3)
|— ||— ||— |
|Total||— ||$||— ||2,705,794 |
(1)The equity compensation plan approved by our stockholders is our Equity Incentive Plan.
(2)The Fixed Share provision applies to shares granted on and after May 10, 2017, and the amended Equity Incentive Plan provides that the maximum number of shares available for grants is 4,700,000.
The number of shares to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rights under the Fixed Share provision excludes: 607,154 shares of restricted stock; performance shares that have been earned but not yet vested totaling 8,388 financial measure performance awards, and 82,996 single financial measure performance awards; and performance shares granted to employees and not yet earned or vested totaling 893,573 shares of financial measure performance awards, calculated using an assumed maximum award performance level of 200%, where applicable, at January 1, 2023.
(3)The Non-Employee Directors Deferred Compensation Plan is an equity compensation plan that has not been approved by our stockholders. This plan provides non-employee directors with the opportunity to defer all or a portion of the fees they receive. Participants may elect to have director fees that are paid in either cash or common stock, deferred into the plan. Participants choose from a list of investment funds as determined by the Company for their deferrals of cash. Deferrals of common stock must remain in common stock. Amounts deferred under the plan are subject to applicable tax withholding. The plan is intended to be a non-qualified deferred compensation arrangement in compliance with Section 409A of the Code. Shares acquired by participants in this plan will be issued from the share reserve stated in the Equity Incentive Plan.
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES.
(a)The following documents are filed as part of this report:
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID 238)
Consolidated Statements of Earnings for the three fiscal years ended January 1, 2023
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three fiscal years ended January 1, 2023
Consolidated Balance Sheets at January 1, 2023 and January 2, 2022
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the three fiscal years ended January 1, 2023
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three fiscal years ended January 1, 2023
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(ii)Financial Statement Schedule -
For the three fiscal years ended January 1, 2023:
Schedule II - Valuation Reserves
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or notes thereto.
(iii)The Exhibits are listed in the Index to Exhibits included beginning at page 96, which is incorporated herein by reference.
(b)The Index to Exhibits and required Exhibits are included following the Financial Statement Schedule beginning at page 96 of this filing.
ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY.
KELLY SERVICES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND
in Report on
| || |
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
The management of Kelly Services, Inc. (the “Company”), is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as a process designed by, or under the supervision of, the Company’s principal executive and principal financial officers and effected by the Company’s board of directors, management and other personnel, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and includes those policies and procedures that:
•Pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company;
•Provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and
•Provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may change.
The Company completed the acquisition of RocketPower on March 7, 2022 and the acquisition of PTS on May 2, 2022. Under guidelines established by the SEC, companies are permitted to exclude acquisitions from their assessment of internal control over financial reporting during the first year of an acquisition while integrating the acquired company. Accordingly, we have excluded the acquired RocketPower and PTS businesses from our assessment and report on internal control over financial reporting for the year ending January 1, 2023. We are in the process of integrating RocketPower and PTS into our system of internal control over financial reporting. RocketPower and PTS both individually accounted for less than 1% of the Company's total assets as of January 1, 2023 and less than 1% of the Company's total revenue for the year ended 2022.
The Company’s management assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 1, 2023. In making this assessment, the Company’s management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013).
Based on our assessment, management determined that, as of January 1, 2023, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective based on those criteria.
The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 1, 2023 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears on pages 44-46.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Kelly Services, Inc.
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Kelly Services, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of January 1, 2023 and January 2, 2022, and the related consolidated statements of earnings, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the years ended January 1, 2023, January 2, 2022, and January 3, 2021, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of January 1, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of January 1, 2023 and January 2, 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years ended January 1, 2023, January 2, 2022, and January 3, 2021 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 1, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
Basis for Opinions
The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
As described in Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting, management has excluded Rocket Power Holdings LLC and Rocket Power Ops LLC (collectively, RocketPower) and Pediatric Therapeutic Services (PTS) from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting as of January 1, 2023, because they were acquired by the Company in purchase business combinations during 2022. We have also excluded RocketPower and PTS from our audit of internal control over financial reporting. RocketPower and PTS are wholly-owned subsidiaries whose total assets and total revenues excluded from management’s assessment and our audit of internal control over financial reporting both individually represented less than 1% of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended January 1, 2023.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures
that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Goodwill Interim Impairment Assessment – RocketPower Reporting Unit
As described in Notes 1, 4, and 9 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s goodwill balance was $151.1 million as of January 1, 2023, and the goodwill allocated to the RocketPower reporting unit was $41.0 million upon its March 2022 acquisition and $0 as of January 1, 2023. The Company performs its annual goodwill impairment testing in the fourth quarter each year and regularly assesses whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that an impairment may have occurred. If the carrying value of the net assets assigned to a reporting unit exceeds the estimated fair value of a reporting unit, goodwill is deemed impaired and is written down to the extent of the difference. During the third quarter of 2022, customers within the high-tech industry vertical in which RocketPower specializes reduced or eliminated their full-time hiring, reducing demand for RocketPower’s services, and on-going economic uncertainty has more broadly impacted the growth in demand for Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO) in the near-term. These changes in market conditions therefore caused a triggering event requiring an interim impairment test for goodwill. Based on the result of management’s interim goodwill impairment test as of third quarter 2022, management recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $30.7 million to write off a portion of RocketPower’s goodwill. Management determined the fair value of the RocketPower reporting unit using an income approach. Under the income approach, estimated fair value is determined based on estimated future cash flows discounted by an estimated market participant weighted-average cost of capital. Management’s analysis used the following significant assumptions: expected future revenue growth rates, profit margins and discount rate.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the goodwill impairment assessment of the RocketPower reporting unit is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when developing the fair value estimate of the reporting unit; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s significant assumptions related to expected future revenue growth rates, profit margins and discount rate; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management’s goodwill impairment assessment, including controls over the valuation of the RocketPower reporting unit. These procedures also included, among others (i) testing management’s process for developing the fair value estimate of the reporting unit; (ii) evaluating the appropriateness of the income approach; (iii) testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data used in the model; and (iv) evaluating the reasonableness of the significant assumptions used by management related to expected future revenue growth rates, profit margins, and discount rate. Evaluating management’s assumptions related to expected future revenue growth rates and profit margins involved evaluating whether the assumptions used by management were reasonable considering (i) the current and past performance of the reporting unit; (ii) the consistency with external market and industry data; and (iii) whether these assumptions were consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in the evaluation of the Company’s income approach and the discount rate significant assumption.
As described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, in the U.S., the Company has a combination of insurance and self-insurance contracts under which they effectively bear the first $1.0 million of risk per single accident. Management establishes the accrual for workers’ compensation claims utilizing actuarial methods to estimate the undiscounted future cash payments that will be made to satisfy the claims, including an allowance for incurred-but-not-reported claims. Management
retains an independent consulting actuary to establish loss development factors and loss rates, based on historical claims experience as well as industry experience, and applies those factors to current claims information to derive an estimate of the ultimate claims liability. In preparing the estimates, the consulting actuary considers a number of assumptions and multiple generally accepted actuarial methods in the course of preparing the loss forecast for claims. When claims exceed the applicable loss limit or self-insured retention and realization of recovery of the claim from existing insurance policies is deemed probable, management records a receivable from the insurance company for the excess amount. Management evaluates the accrual quarterly throughout the year and makes adjustments as needed. As disclosed by management, as of January 1, 2023, the accrual for accrued workers’ compensation, net of related receivables, is $43.3 million.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to workers’ compensation is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when determining the actuarial methods and the significant assumptions to use in establishing the accrual for workers’ compensation claims; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s actuarial methods and significant assumptions related to the loss development factors and loss rates; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management’s accrual for workers’ compensation claims, including controls over the actuarial methods and development of significant assumptions. These procedures also included, among others (i) the involvement of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge to assist in developing an independent estimate for the accrual for workers’ compensation claims and (ii) comparing the independent estimate to management’s estimate to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s estimate. Developing the independent estimate involved (i) testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data provided by management; (ii) evaluating management’s actuarial methods and significant assumptions related to the loss development factors and loss rates; and (iii) independently developing the loss development factors and loss rates and actuarial methods used.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
February 16, 2023
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 1960.
KELLY SERVICES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS
| ||(In millions of dollars except per share items)|
|Revenue from services||$||4,965.4 ||$||4,909.7 ||$||4,516.0 |
|Cost of services||3,953.6 ||3,990.5 ||3,688.4 |
|Gross profit||1,011.8 ||919.2 ||827.6 |
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||943.5 ||870.6 ||805.6 |
|Goodwill impairment charge||41.0 ||— ||147.7 |
|Gain on sale of assets||(6.2)||— ||(32.1)|
|Loss on disposal||18.7 ||— ||— |
|Earnings (loss) from operations||14.8 ||48.6 ||(93.6)|
|Gain (loss) on investment in Persol Holdings||(67.2)||121.8 ||(16.6)|
|Gain on insurance settlement||— ||19.0 ||— |
|Loss on currency translation from liquidation of subsidiary||(20.4)||— ||— |
|Other income (expense), net||1.6 ||(3.6)||3.4 |
|Earnings (loss) before taxes and equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliate||(71.2)||185.8 ||(106.8)|
|Income tax expense (benefit) ||(7.9)||35.1 ||(34.0)|
|Net earnings (loss) before equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliate||(63.3)||150.7 ||(72.8)|
|Equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliate||0.8 ||5.4 ||0.8 |
|Net earnings (loss)||$||(62.5)||$||156.1 ||$||(72.0)|
|Basic earnings (loss) per share||$||(1.64)||$||3.93 ||$||(1.83)|
|Diluted earnings (loss) per share||$||(1.64)||$||3.91 ||$||(1.83)|
|Average shares outstanding (millions):|| || || |
|Basic||38.1 ||39.4 ||39.3 |
|Diluted||38.1 ||39.5 ||39.3 |
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
KELLY SERVICES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
| ||(In millions of dollars)|
|Net earnings (loss)||$||(62.5)||$||156.1 ||$||(72.0)|
|Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:|| || || |
|Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax benefit of $0.2 million and tax expense of $0.1 million and $0.2 million, respectively||(7.5)||(24.2)||13.9 |
|Less: Reclassification adjustments included in net earnings (loss) - liquidation of Japan subsidiary||20.4 ||— ||— |
|Less: Reclassification adjustments included in net earnings (loss) - equity method investment and other||4.7 ||— ||(|